*************** The ARRL Letter Vol. 24, No. 06 February 11, 2005 *************** IN THIS EDITION: * +ARRL files petition for reconsideration on BPL order * +BPL problems persist in Austrian city * +Earth cadets work space commander on ham radio * +Hamvention to feature ARRL Expo 2005 * +Desecheo Island will remain a rare one a while longer * +The DX Magazine releases most-wanted DXCC entities survey * Solar Update * IN BRIEF: This weekend on the radio ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration +New video PSAs now available from ARRL +ARRL member wins Jeopardy! "Teen Tournament" "Big Project" schools get Best Buy Te@ch grants Jeff Brone, WB2JNA, wins January QST Cover Plaque Award DXCC Desk approves operations for DXCC credit Correction +Available on ARRL Audio News =========================================================== ==>ARRL TELLS FCC TO "RECONSIDER, RESCIND AND RESTUDY" BPL ORDER The ARRL has petitioned the FCC to take its broadband over power line (BPL) Report and Order (R&O) back to the drawing board. In a Petition for Reconsideration filed February 7, the League called on the Commission to "reconsider, rescind and restudy" its October 14, 2004, adoption of new Part 15 rules spelling out how BPL providers may deploy the technology on HF and low-VHF frequencies. Asserting that the R&O fails to adequately take into account the technology's potential to interfere with Amateur Radio and other licensed services, the League called the FCC's action to permit BPL "a gross policy mistake." The R&O, the ARRL said, "represents a classic case of prejudgment" by an FCC that knew better but ignored evidence already at its disposal. "It is readily apparent that the Commission long ago made up its mind that it was going to permit BPL without substantial regulation, no matter what the effect of this flawed application of old technology is on licensed radio services," the League's petition declares. The ARRL accuses FCC Commissioner Michael Powell and his four colleagues of deliberately authorizing "a spectrum pollution source" that's proven to be incompatible with existing licensed uses of the HF spectrum. "The Commission wanted nothing to contradict its enthusiasm about BPL," the League said, and its Office of Engineering and Technology (OET) saw to it that evidence of the "fundamental incompatibility" between BPL and incumbent HF radio services "was suppressed, ignored or discredited." The FCC has not adjudicated a single interference complaint, the ARRL added, but has swept interference complaints under the rug. While expressing appreciation for Commissioner Michael Copps' concerns regarding BPL's potential to interfere with Amateur Radio and his call for quick complaint resolution, the League said his admonition "has not been heeded by either the Enforcement Bureau or the Office of Engineering and Technology." In the filing, which included several technical exhibits to bolster its major points, the ARRL further argued that Powell--a self-described "cheerleader" for the technology--the ARRL further argued that Powell should have recused himself from voting on the R&O. The chairman, the ARRL says, violated the FCC's own ex parte rules by attending a BPL provider's demonstration October 12, after release of the October 14 agenda. Powell "tainted this proceeding" by taking part in the demonstration, and that alone is sufficient to have the Commission vacate and reconsider its action, the ARRL alleged. The League also said the FCC's "late and incomplete" responses to ARRL's Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests fail to show any support for FCC's conclusions regarding interference to licensed services from BPL. The highly redacted information release contained nothing that supports the FCC's conclusions about BPL's interference potential and suppressed negative recommendations from its own technical investigators, the petition says. As a result, the League said, the Commission "failed to conduct impartial, reasoned rulemaking." The Commission used an unlawful "balancing test" that weighed BPL's purported benefits against its interference to licensed services, the League asserts, creating "a hierarchy of licensed radio services" based upon "how much interference each service deserves." The Communications Act, the League's petition points out, requires an objective determination from the outset that the likelihood of harmful interference from a proposed unlicensed service is virtually nil. The interference mitigation rules in the R&O are both ineffective and inequitably applied, the ARRL's petition further argues. Noting the new rules do not require BPL systems to shut down in the event of interference except as "a last resort," the League said the practical effect is "that systems will never have to shut down," even if the BPL operator has not been able to remedy ongoing harmful interference to the Amateur Service. The new rules, the petition charges, accord priority to unlicensed BPL, "regardless of the preclusive effect" or the duration of interference. In its unanimous BPL decision, the Commission, the League says, has abandoned its fundamental obligation to avoid interference in telecommunication systems, instead requiring complainants to initiate contact with BPL providers and "beg for resolution." The ARRL petition also faults the Commission's adopted measurement standards. The League's Petition for Reconsideration in ET Dockets 03-104 and 04-37 is on the ARRL Web site, www.arrl.org/announce/regulatory/et04-37/recon_petition/. ==>BPL LEGAL WRANGLES CONTINUE IN AUSTRIAN CITY Local telecommunication authorities in Austria have sent a "first-step" legal notice to Linz Strom GmbH (Linz Power), calling on the utility to "take necessary technical measures" to operate its "Speed-Web" broadband over power line (BPL) system so it doesn't cause interference to other telecommunication equipment. Joseph Ibinger, who heads the Upper Austria-Salzburg field office for the Federal Ministry for Commerce, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT), told Linz Power in late December that interference mentioned in complaints is definitely coming from the utility's BPL system. From the time the BPL installation was a pilot project, radio amateurs have been among the most vocal in expressing their displeasure, blaming BPL for causing excessive interference on HF bands throughout the City of Linz. The Austrian Amateur Transmitter Federation (÷sterreichischer Versuchssenderverband--÷VSV), Austria's International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) member-society, praised the action, which the utility is very likely to appeal. "The Austrian Amateur Radio Society applauds this decision of local authorities and notes that radio users have repeatedly indicated the problem of unwanted radiation from unshielded mains wiring," said ÷VSV President Michael Zwingl, OE3MZC. "The recent decision will be an example for authorities in other European countries facing similar problems in BPL trials." In October 2003, Linz Power received a similar letter from local telecommunications authorities asking the utility to "remove the illegal interference" on the HF bands generated by the utility's BPL then-pilot project. As a result, Zwingl says, the utility took legal action against ÷VSV. Assuming an appeal by Linz Power, the BMVIT must move Ibinger's initial response--essentially the equivalent of a warning notice or citation--up to the next level, and it could take up to six months to resolve the matter. Zwingl says if the federal authorities affirm the local decision, they could prohibit operation of the BPL system. As it now stands, the utility was given a month to resolve the interference. Zwingl said ÷VSV has been unable to obtain a copy of the actual decision and was only able to obtain details of the document in January by working through a "peoples' lawyer," essentially a legal ombudsman who runs interference between the Austrian federal government and citizens. According to legal ombudsman Peter Kostelka's report to Zwingl, the telecommunication authorities cited Linz Power's use of unshielded wiring to transport data signals, resulting in constant emissions that interfere with short wave bands as "an undesirable byproduct" of the system. The Linz Power BPL system boasts upward of 4000 "satisfied customers" out of the 40,000 in its service area. It offers its basic service for Ä24 a month; a faster version goes for Ä42 a month, both less installation charges. Speed-Web uses Main.net BPL technology. Zwingl said the recent official decree followed "some years of complaints and investigations" into the Linz Power BPL project. "We put pressure on officials to not just take measurements but also to react by all legal means," he said. "It took us some time, but we never agreed with the opinion of some authorities who have made a judgment between the importance of ham radio and BPL." Zwingl maintains that Austria's telecommunication rules conform with International Telecommunication Union (ITU) regulations and "protect radio services and spectrum regardless of subjective importance." Linz Power Executive Josef Heizinger reportedly reacted calmly to the field office decision. "We are absolutely in the right, legally, and will continue the BPL development according to plan," he's quoted in the media. In another interview, Heizinger declared that "simultaneous problem-free operation of BPL and Amateur Radio equipment is possible," and he blamed a small group of dissident radio amateurs for trying to discredit "this innovative and economical technology." Linz Strom blames the few radio interference problems its system has caused on "defective equipment," and says it's resolved those cases promptly. ÷VSV continues to insist that in its current form BPL--also known in German-speaking countries as "Internet from the Electrical Outlet"--is incompatible with HF reception. ==>UK CADETS TAKE TO THE HAM RADIO AIRWAVES TO CHAT WITH ISS Cadets from the 1132nd Air Training Corps Squadron from Stalham High School in Norfolk, England, made contact via Amateur Radio February 2 with the International Space Station. The direct VHF school group contact between GB2ATC and NA1SS was sponsored by the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) program. ISS Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, KE5BRW, responded to 20 questions from the cadets, who ranged in age from 13 to 18. He told the cadets that while he and crewmate Salizhan Sharipov did not witness the December 29 tsunami, they have been able to view the aftermath from more than 200 miles above Earth. "We were able to get some pretty striking photographs of the damage," Chiao told the high schoolers. "It was really a tragedy for us to witness." He explained that it was not until several days after the disaster that the spacecraft's orbit brought the crew over that part of the world during daylight. Another cadet wanted to know how the Expedition 10 crew celebrated the arrival of the new year. "We marked New Year's Eve as we went around the earth and marked the big cities," Chiao responded. "Of course we didn't have very much to toast with, but we did have some chocolates to enjoy." Cadets also asked what inspired Chiao to become an astronaut and who were his role models. He told the students that seeing the early Apollo moon landings in the late 1960s stimulated his interest in pursuing a career in space. He cited astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Mike Collins as his early heroes. The youngsters also asked what the crew members ate and drank in space. Chiao told the cadets that there was both American and Russian-style cuisine aboard. As for beverages, he mentioned juices, coffee and tea. "Unfortunately, that's about all we have," he quipped. "We don't have any of the good stuff on board." Organizing the QSO on the local level was the squadron's commander Terry Owen, G4PSH. The Radio Society of Great Britain's (RSGB) mobile radio communications demonstration vehicle GB4FUN was on hand to back up the Earth station in the event anything broke down. Fortunately, that did not happen. Owen called the ARISS QSO "a fantastic opportunity" for his squadron's members that would help with projects the schools were doing on space exploration. The RSGB's Carlos Eavis, G0AKI, assisted with the contact and also garnered a post-contact interview with the BBC. "I think it shows them science has a value, not only as a teaching aid but also in everyday life," he told the Beeb. "We're surrounded by technology. They need to understand that physics does apply to real life." An area newspaper also reported on the ARISS school group QSO. ARISS <http://www.rac.ca/ariss/> is an international educational outreach with US participation by ARRL, NASA and AMSAT. ==>ARRL EXPO 2005 TO HIGHLIGHT LEAGUE'S NATIONAL CONVENTION IN DAYTON If you've never been to Dayton Hamvention, then this is the year. That's because Hamvention will host the 2005 ARRL National Convention May 20-22. A special feature of the event will be "ARRL Expo 2005," a separate area at Hara Arena that will highlight what the League means to Amateur Radio. "ARRL Expo 2005 will be a special feature of the Convention," says ARRL Marketing Manager Bob Inderbitzen, NQ1R, who's helping to coordinate the event. "ARRL Expo will showcase ARRL membership benefits and services as well as the activities of ARRL volunteers. Visitors will be able to meet ARRL volunteers and staff knowledgeable on a wide variety of topics, and, of course, have their cards checked for operating awards." Hamvention has donated a separate section of floor space for ARRL Expo 2005. The large area is convenient to the flea market and indoor exhibit areas--and it's just a short walk from the Ballarena entrance to Hara Arena. While the Expo area will complement the traditional ARRL concession in North Hall, it will operate independently. ARRL Expo will offer the opportunity to meet and greet ARRL staff members and volunteers--including representatives of DXCC, the Amateur Radio Emergency Service and other ARRL entities and programs that span the wide variety of interests that comprise Amateur Radio. The National Association of Radio and Telecommunications Engineers (NARTE) will be attending Hamvention as guests of the ARRL National Convention. ARRL and NARTE have a memorandum of understanding to support mutually beneficial programs and activities. NARTE representatives will be on hand at the ARRL exhibit and will provide FCC General Radiotelephone Operator License (GROL) examinations to interested applicants. The testing fee, not included in the Hamvention admission price, is $40. Register or get more information from the NARTE Web site or by calling NARTE toll-free at 800-89-NARTE (800-896-2783). Inderbitzen notes that ARRL Expo 2005 will be the place to pick up a free "ARRL Passport" to get a 2005 ARRL National Convention keepsake when making qualifying purchases from participating retailers at Hamvention. The ARRL ad hoc National Convention Committee has been meeting since last July to help make Dayton Hamvention 2005 a memorable ARRL National Convention. New England Division Director Tom Frenaye, K1KI, chairs the committee. Members are ARRL Great Lakes Director Jim Weaver, K8JE, Dakota Division Director Jay Bellows, K0QB, Midwest Division Director Wade Walstrom, W0EJ, and ARRL Sales and Marketing Manager Dennis Motschenbacher, K7BV. The theme of Dayton Hamvention 2005 is "Bringing hams together from around the world." Upward of 25,000 visitors from the US and elsewhere on the globe make the annual pilgrimage to Hamvention, where socializing is a big part of the fun. In addition to the popular indoor and outdoor exhibits and vendors, Dayton Hamvention 2005 will feature a full slate of forums and other activities. As they say, "If you can't find it at Dayton, you'll never find it." It's not too soon to purchase tickets for Dayton Hamvention 2005. Early birds can save $5 by getting their tickets online at the Hamvention Web site <http://www.hamvention.org/>. Hamvention has eliminated the on-line handling charge. Check the ARRL National Convention at Dayton Hamvention Web page <http://www.arrl.org/announce/nc/2005/> for information updates. ==>OHIO DXERS DENIED DESECHEO ISLAND (KP5) LANDING PERMIT The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) has again said "no" to four Ohio radio amateurs seeking to visit Desecheo Island (KP5), a prized DX location that's on the top-ten "most-needed list" for DXCC. The denial came in a letter from the FWS to US Rep Mike Turner (R-OH) of Dayton, who acted on behalf of well-known DXer and contester Harry Flasher, AC8G, and three other members of the South West Ohio DX Association (SWODXA). Flasher was on Desecheo in the 1980s. A small island about 14 miles off the northwestern corner of Puerto Rico, Desecheo Island is a national wildlife refuge and under FWS jurisdiction. The FWS told Turner that the Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge "is closed to all public entry for safety reasons due to unexploded ordinance (artillery shells) in the area." The island once was the site of war games. The FWS has not issued Amateur Radio permits since 1993. As it has in earlier denials, the FWS also raised the specter of problems with Caribbean drug traffickers in turning down the latest request. The FWS also has continued to deny access to Navassa Island (KP1), over which it also has jurisdiction. Navassa is on the most-needed list for DXCC as well. The SWODXA group had requested access to a small landing beach--a manmade gravel patch the group feels is far away from potential contact with unexploded artillery shells. ARRL Ohio Section Manager Joe Phillips, K8QOE, said the group has not given up its attempts to gain permission to land on and operate from Desecheo Island.--Joe Phillips, K8QOE ==>THE DX MAGAZINE ISSUES MOST-WANTED DXCC ENTITIES SURVEY RESULTS According to 2004 survey results published in the January/February issue of The DX Magazine <http://www.dxpub.com/>, North Korea (P5) remains atop DXers' "most-wanted" lists for DXCC. "It was a real surprise to see North Korea at the top of the most-wanted list," commented The Daily DX <http://www.dailydx.com/> Editor Bernie McClenny, W3UR. The most-recent P5 operation was by Ed Giorgadze, P5/4L4FN, in 2001 and 2002, during which he logged more than 16,000 QSOs. Number two on the list is Andaman and Nicobar Islands (VU4), although a post-survey DXpedition in December likely diminished worldwide demand, despite being cut short by the tsunami. In third place--but topping the list in four US time zones--was Scarborough Reef (BS7). Fourth is Lakshadweep (VU7), and fifth is Yemen (7O). A DXpedition set for this month from number six Peter Island (3Y/P) could blunt demand for that rare one. Rounding out the top 10 are Navassa Island (KP1) and Desecheo Island (KP5), both under jurisdiction of the US Fish and Wildlife Service which has denied visitation permission, Bouvet (3Y/B) and Kure Island (KH7K). McClenny, who also edits "How's DX?" for QST, notes there's still a large demand for VU4, but he expressed guarded optimism that the VU4RBI/VU4NRO DXpedition's emergency communication operation following the December 29 earthquake and tsunami would make Indian authorities more willing to allow future DXpeditions. "Keep you fingers crossed," he said. ==>SOLAR UPDATE Solar Seer Tad "House of the Rising Sunspot" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington, reports: All solar activity indicators rose this week, but not by much. The average daily sunspot number for the week rose 4.4 points to 41.3, the average daily solar flux was up 11.6 points to 85.1, the average planetary A index rose 4 points to 15.1, and the average daily mid-latitude A index rose 2.2 points to 10.6. Monday through Wednesday, February 7-9, had unsettled to active geomagnetic activity. Tuesday was the most disturbed day, with a planetary A index of 34, and mid-latitude A index of 27. At 0300 UTC February 8, the planetary K index reached a high of 6, and at 1800 UTC the Alaska college K index toped out at the very high value of 8. There was a K index of 7 the previous day, and the college A indices for February 7-10 were 50, 71, 45 and 30--all high values. The higher A and K numbers this week were caused by a robust solar wind stream. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field pointed south, so Earth was vulnerable to these particles. When the IMF points north, Earth is shielded, and it didn't swing north until February 10--a quiet day. Currently solar flux is expected to stay around 115 for February 11-12, then drop a few points over the next few days. Solar flux could drop below 100 around February 19. Sunspot numbers for February 3 through 9 were 23, 22, 22, 47, 62, 53 and 60, with a mean of 41.3. The 10.7 cm flux was 83, 82.1, 94.6, 97, 103.1, 108.2 and 108.6, with a mean of 96.7. Estimated planetary A indices were 8, 3, 4, 9, 23, 34 and 25, with a mean of 15.1. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 5, 2, 1, 6, 19, 27 and 14, with a mean of 10.6. __________________________________ ==>IN BRIEF: * This weekend on the radio: The North American Sprint (CW), the KCJ Topband Contest, the CQ WW RTTY WPX Contest, SARL Kid's Day, SARL Field Day Contest, the Asia-Pacific Spring Sprint (CW), the Dutch PACC Contest, the YLRL YL-OM Contest (SSB), the Louisiana QSO Party, the OMISS QSO Party, the FISTS Winter Sprint, the British Columbia QSO Challenge and the RSGB First 1.8 MHz Contest (CW) are the weekend of February 12-13. The ARRL School Club Roundup is February 14-19. The AGCW Semi-Automatic Key Evening and the RSGB 80-Meter Club Championship (Data) are February 16. JUST AHEAD: The ARRL International DX Contest (CW) is the weekend of February 19-20. The RSGB 80-Meter Club Championship (CW) is February 24. The Russian PSK Worldwide Contest is the weekend of February 25-26. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <http://www.arrl.org/contests/> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar <http://www.hornucopia.com/contestcal/index.html> for more info. * ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration: Registration for the Technician Licensing course (EC-010) and the new Analog Electronics course (EC-012) remains open through Sunday, February 13. Classes begin Friday, February 25. With the assistance of a mentor, Technician Licensing students learn everything they need to know to pass the FCC Technician class license examination. Analog Electronics students will learn about the use of instrumentation, Kirchhoff's Laws, diodes, rectifier circuits, bipolar and field effect transistors, various amplifier configurations, filters, timers, op amps and voltage regulators. Most lessons include a design problem and optional construction project. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education (CCE) Web page <http://www.arrl.org/cce/> or contact the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Program <email@example.com>. * Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration: Registration for the ARRL Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level II on-line course (EC-002) opens Monday, February 14, at 1201 AM EST and will remain open until all available seats have been filled or through the February 19-20 weekend--whichever comes first. Class begins Friday, March 4. THIS IS THE FINAL YEAR OF GRANT-SUBSIDIZED CLASSES! Thanks to our grant sponsors--the Corporation for National and Community Service and the United Technologies Corporation--the $45 registration fee paid upon enrollment will be reimbursed after successful completion of the course. Radio amateurs 55 and up are strongly encouraged to participate. During this registration period, seats are being offered to ARRL members on a first-come, first-served basis. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web page <http://www.arrl.org/cce>. For more information, contact Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan Miller, K3UFG, firstname.lastname@example.org; 860-594-0340. * New video PSAs now available from ARRL: Following up on the introduction last month of two new audio public service announcements promoting Amateur Radio to the general public, the ARRL is now offering video PSAs. The new videos underscore how, in the wake of recent disasters, ham radio operators are able to pass emergency traffic when other communication systems fail. These "mini-commercials" for ham radio already are airing on dozens of stations across the US, and the numbers keep growing. There's a 30-second MPEG (nearly 2.7 MB) file on the ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/pio/ARRL30mpeg-video.mpg>. While MPEGs are good enough to view on a PC, they don't have sufficient resolution for broadcast television. To obtain a video in higher-resolution DVD+r format, contact ARRL Media and Public Relations Manager Allen Pitts, W1AGP, <email@example.com>. Include your name and address and indicate on which TV outlet you will place the spot. ARRL thanks Jerry Martin, KC9BDA, for his efforts in turning the great audio into an impressive video! The radio/audio PSAs remain available on the ARRL Web site as well. There's a 30-second spot <http://www.arrl.org/pio/HAMWORKS30.mp3> and a 60-second spot <http://www.arrl.org/pio/60HamRadioWorks0105.mp3>. To download, right click once on the selection and choose SAVE TARGET. * ARRL member wins Jeopardy! "Teen Tournament": Sixteen-year-old ARRL member Michael Braun, K3LNT, of Silver Spring, Maryland, picked up the $75,000 grand prize as winner of the Jeopardy! "Teen Tournament" February 8. "Most of my money will be in savings for college and future expenses," Braun said when asked what he'll do with his financial windfall. "However, I may use a small fraction for radio equipment." A high school junior, Braun holds a General ticket, enjoys HF operating and is a member of the Montgomery Amateur Radio Club (MARC). He also told Jeopardy! that he hopes to eventually work for a computer company and considers Microsoft's Bill Gates "somewhat of a role model." Sony Pictures produces Jeopardy! * "Big Project" schools get Best Buy Te@ch grants: Two ARRL Amateur Radio Education and Technology Program (ETP) <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/tbp/> participating schools were the Liberal Arts and Science Academy of Austin at Lyndon Baines Johnson High School (LBJ) in Austin, Texas, and Orono Middle School in Orono, Maine. Lead teachers Ronny Risinger, KC5EES, at LBJ, and Richard Glueck, N1MDZ, at Orono say they'll use the grant funds to purchase laptop computers suitable for field work and other applications. ARRL ETP Coordinator Mark Spencer, WA8SME, says he hopes other Big Project schools will consider taking advantage of the Te@ch awards and other grant programs. The list of all schools receiving Te@ch grants is available on the Best Buy Web site <http://communications.bestbuy.com/communityrelations/teachwinners.asp>. The ETP reaches more than 3600 students, exposing them to a collective total of some 184,000 hours of involvement in "wireless technology literacy." The League invites contributions to the ARRL Education and Technology Program via its secure donation Web site <https://www.arrl.org/forms/development/donations/education/education.html>. * Jeff Brone, WB2JNA, wins January QST Cover Plaque Award: The winner of the QST Cover Plaque Award for January is Jeff Brone, WB2JNA, for his article "EchoLink for Beginners." Congratulations, Jeff! The winner of the QST Cover Plaque award--given to the author or authors of the best article in each issue--is determined by a vote of ARRL members on the QST Cover Plaque Poll Web page <http://www.arrl.org/members-only/QSTvote.html>. Cast a ballot for your favorite article in the February issue by February 28. * DXCC Desk approves operations for DXCC credit: The ARRL DXCC Desk has approved the R1MVI (Malyj Vysotskij Island) operation of September 10-13, 2004, and the Chesterfield Island (TX9) operation of October 2004 for DXCC credit. For more information, visit the DXCC Web page <http://www.arrl.org/awards/dxcc>. "DXCC Frequently Asked Questions <http://www.arrl.org/awards/dxcc/faq/>," can answer most questions about the DXCC program. Current ARRL DX bulletins are available on the W1AW DX Bulletins for 2004 page <http://www.arrl.org/w1aw/dx/>. * Correction: In The ARRL Letter, Vol 24, No 05 (Feb 4, 2005), we misspelled the name "Kirchhoff," as in Kirchhoff's Laws. =========================================================== The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259; <http://www.arrl.org/>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President. The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of interest to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise, and readable. Visit ARRLWeb <http://www.arrl.org/> for the latest news, updated as it happens. The ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/> offers access to news, informative features and columns. ARRL Audio News <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> is a weekly "ham radio newscast" compiled from The ARRL Letter. Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to The ARRL Letter and The American Radio Relay League. ==>Delivery problems (ARRL member direct delivery only!): firstname.lastname@example.org ==>Editorial questions or comments: Rick Lindquist, N1RL, email@example.com ==>ARRL News on the Web: <http://www.arrl.org/> ==>ARRL Audio News: <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> or call 860-594-0384 ==>How to Get The ARRL Letter The ARRL Letter is available to ARRL members free of charge directly from ARRL HQ. To subscribe, unsubscribe or change your address for e-mail delivery: ARRL members first must register on the Members Only Web Site <http://www.arrl.org/members/>. You'll have an opportunity during registration to sign up for e-mail delivery of The ARRL Letter, W1AW bulletins, and other material. To change these selections--including delivery of The ARRL Letter--registered members should click on the "Member Data Page" link (in the Members Only box). Click on "Modify membership data," check or uncheck the appropriate boxes and/or change your e-mail address if necessary. (Check "Temporarily disable all automatically sent email" to temporarily stop all e-mail deliveries.) Then, click on "Submit modification" to make selections effective. (NOTE: HQ staff members cannot change your e-mail delivery address. You must do this yourself via the Members Only Web Site.) The ARRL Letter also is available to all, free of charge, from these sources: * ARRLWeb <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/>. 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