*************** The ARRL Letter Vol. 24, No. 16 April 22, 2005 *************** IN THIS EDITION: * +ARRL Executive Committee reviews legal, legislative issues * +New Mexico's high court says amateur's antennas can stay * +Two-ham crew takes charge of ISS in formal change of command * +New Hampshire school logs state's first ARISS QSO * +Amateur applications referred for hearings * +Ham-radio-in-space pioneer will be ARRL 2005 Convention special guest * Solar Update * IN BRIEF: This weekend on the radio ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration ARRL Executive Committee bandwidth proposals unchanged for VHF/UHF +Dayton HamventionR to fete award winners +First 47-GHz moonbounce QSOs announced ARRL Field Day 2005 publicity information available +Available on ARRL Audio News <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> =========================================================== ==>Delivery problems (ARRL member direct delivery only!): firstname.lastname@example.org ==>Editorial questions or comments: Rick Lindquist, N1RL, email@example.com =========================================================== ==>EXPERIMENTAL LICENSE, BPL COURT CHALLENGE ON EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AGENDA The ARRL has applied to the FCC for a Part 5 Experimental license on behalf of a group of amateurs interested in operating in the vicinity of 500 kHz. ARRL General Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD, announced the filing during a meeting of the ARRL Executive Committee April 9 in Denver. The experimental application was among several items the EC dealt with in addition to its recommendations <http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2005/04/13/1/> <http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2005/04/13/1/> to the ARRL Board of Directors regarding a planned regulation-by-bandwidth petition. If granted, the two-year Part 5 license would permit experimentation and research between 495 and 510 kHz using CW and PSK31 at power levels of up to 20 W effective radiated power. ARRL Member Fred Raab, W1FR, of Burlington, Vermont, would manage the project, which calls for 23 discrete fixed sites from New England to California and Minnesota to Louisiana. In other business, Imlay noted that the pleading cycle on petitions for reconsideration of the FCC's October 14, 2004, Report and Order (R&O) on Broadband over Power Line (BPL) has closed. He also reminded the panel that the FCC has yet to take effective enforcement action in a single case of ongoing BPL interference. Imlay informed the EC that he sees at least two strong procedural bases to challenge the BPL R&O in the US Court of Appeals. After some discussion, the committee instructed Imlay to develop a recommendation for outside counsel to assist with such an appeal. In March, ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ, said the League did not expect the FCC to make any substantive changes to the R&O in response to various petitions for reconsideration and that the BPL proceeding ultimately would wind up in court. On other legal and legislative matters, Imlay indicated that the FCC R&O in another proceeding, "Nationwide Programmatic Agreement for Review Under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966," WT Docket 03-128, has implications for radio amateurs who might want to install antennas near historic sites. Required procedures could be cumbersome and expensive, he told the EC. The committee asked ARRL staff to begin discussions with FCC staff to come up with the best way to minimize the burden on both Amateur Radio licensees and the Commission. The EC reviewed the status of enforcement action against an unlicensed individual in Southern California and agreed that the process has been unacceptably slow. The result has been continued and ongoing interference to repeaters in the Los Angeles area. ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, reported to the EC on recent informal discussions with National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) personnel regarding the possibility of increasing amateur privileges in the 60-meter band. Haynie cited the favorable experience to date sharing five discrete channels with federal government stations. A possible presentation to federal government spectrum managers could be the next step. Haynie also reported briefly on his February visit to Central America to promote Amateur Radio as an educational tool. Haynie expressed appreciation for the help of ARRL Technical Relations Office staff member John Siverling, WB3ERA, and noted that the ARRL delegation was warmly received. Minutes of the April 9 Executive Committee meeting are on the ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/announce/ec_minutes_476.html>. ==>NEW MEXICO AMATEUR WINS ANTENNA CASE IN STATE SUPREME COURT Two 130-foot antenna support structures on the property of New Mexico radio amateur Gerry Smith, W6TER, will remain, now that arguments to permit them have prevailed in the state Supreme Court. This month's opinion reversed New Mexico Court of Appeals and District Court decisions that had ruled against allowing Smith to continue constructing the towers on his rural Bernalillo County property. In July 1999, the county issued Smith a building permit but in December of that year ordered him to halt the project claiming it had erred in issuing the permit. New Mexico Supreme Court Chief Justice Richard C. Bosson recounted events a bit differently in the unanimous opinion. "After neighbors complained, the county changed its mind, tried unsuccessfully to stop the construction and devised new reasons why Plaintiff's [Smith's] radio towers should not be allowed," Bosson wrote. Smith bought his property in July 1999 after extensively researching deed covenants, conditions and restrictions, receiving assurances from county officials and submitting a detailed, professionally prepared site plan. After Smith got his building permit and began work on the tower project, Bernalillo County attempted to shut it down, citing June 1999 amendments to its zoning ordinance that, the county asserted, had removed Amateur Radio antennas as an "incidental use" in the A-2 (rural agricultural) zone. Smith took his case to District Court, which agreed with the county's rationale and added another reason of its own to prohibit the structures. The case then went to the Appeals Court. In 2002, New Mexico became the 14th state to adopt an Amateur Radio antenna bill, based on the limited federal preemption known as PRB-1, which requires municipalities to "reasonably accommodate" Amateur Radio communication. Paraphrasing the language of PRB-1, the Appeals Court agreed that the District Court had acted properly in denying Smith's petition because the two 130-foot towers were "unreasonable" as a customarily incidental use. The New Mexico Supreme Court applied three standards of review and agreed with Smith on all counts. The high court said that the plain terms of the county ordinance indicate that Amateur Radio towers are exempt from height restrictions, that the county had previously interpreted ham radio antennas as customarily incidental, and that the county had failed to adopt a specific standard to preserve scenic value. "The results of this case may be unfortunate for the neighbors who understandably regard Plaintiff's radio towers as an eyesore," Bosson wrote for the court. "But Plaintiff fairly relied on the express language of the ordinance and the assurances of the county zoning officials in buying his property." The Supreme Court said that if the county had wanted to prevent towers like Smith's, it could have expressly amended its zoning ordinance to include specific height limitations. "The County cannot after the fact come up with a new legal rationale to block an unpopular activity, which was previously permitted, to the detriment of a property owner who did everything in his power to follow the rules," Bosson concluded in reversing the Court of Appeals affirmation of the District Court decision. Regarding his neighbors--the nearest of which is some 1500 feet away--Smith said their main concern was not that the towers were an eyesore. "It is depreciation of property value," he told ARRL. "In fact, over the course of this litigation, their property values have substantially escalated, in tune with other areas around where I live." The League actively participated in Smith's case from the start, and ARRL General Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD, filed a friend-of-the-court (amicus curiae) brief with the Court of Appeals in support of Smith's appeal. The League also filed three extensive briefs in the case, most recently with the New Mexico Supreme Court, said Imlay, who called the decision "a great precedent" for similar cases and a "shot in the arm for tower planning." "Most importantly, the case holds that Amateur Radio antennas--even large ones not specifically regulated by ordinance--can be constructed without an unlegislated 'reasonableness' factor," Imlay commented. Smith credited Albuquerque attorney Ed Ricco, N5LI, an ARRL Volunteer Counsel, for the successful outcome. "It was Ed's masterful briefs and oral argument that won this case," he said. ==>NEW TWO-HAM TEAM TAKES OVER ABOARD ISS International Space Station Expedition 10 crew members Leroy Chiao, KE5BRW, and Salizhan Sharipov have formally handed over command of the station to the Expedition 11 crew of Commander Sergei Krikalev, U5MIR, and US Astronaut and ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer John Phillips, KE5DRY. A formal change-of-command ceremony was held aboard the ISS today. "We are at the end of our mission," said Chiao, who headed the Expedition 10 crew. "Salizhan Shapirovich Shapirov and I look back with pride at our mission and accomplishments. We are proud to have represented the international partnership in space and to have moved us forward in our collective efforts to further our reach into the cosmos." Chiao then handed the microphone over to Krikalev. "John Phillips and I are ready to accept the responsibility of operating and maintaining the ISS," the new commander said. "We will take good care of her and continue the forward push in our international efforts of space exploration." Chiao then formally passed command of the ISS to Krikalev, which he accepted. Accompanying Krikalev and Phillips on the April 15 Soyuz "taxi flight" was European Space Agency (ESA) Astronaut Roberto Vittori, IZ6ERU, of Italy. Over the past week, the five space travelers have been involved in various crew handover duties and briefings. And while the newcomers have been settling in, Chiao and Sharipov--who have been aboard the space outpost since last October--have been gathering up their gear, understandably eager to go home. Krikalev, 46, and Phillips, 54, both have been aboard the ISS before. Now returning as the crew commander, Krikalev was a member of the very first crew to occupy the ISS in November 2000. By the time his Expedition 11 stay is over, Krikalev will have spent more time in space than any other human. Phillips was a member of the shuttle Endeavour STS-100 crew and coordinated two spacewalks at the ISS to install Canadarm2. He's been wanting to return ever since. During his brief visit, Vittori conducted experiments aboard the station under a commercial agreement between ESA and the Russian space agency. He also put in a little radio time, talking to youngsters back on Earth during three Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS <http://www.rac.ca/ariss/> ) contacts. On April 18, he conducted ARISS school group QSOs with two technical schools. One of the schools was named for wireless pioneer Guglielmo Marconi, and his daughter, Princess Elettra Marconi, assisted in the event and extended greetings to Vittori, at one point saying her father "would have been proud of you for your marvelous mission." On April 20, Vittori answered questions from youngsters gathered at the European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) in Frascati, Italy. The ESA had invited more than 120 pupils from primary schools in the region to the event. All of Vittori's school group contacts were conducted in Italian. Special event station II0ESA will be on the air on HF from Rome until May 15 to celebrate the Vittori's flight. The departing crew and Vittori will leave the ISS Sunday, April 24, aboard the Soyuz transporter that carried Expedition 10 into space last fall. They're scheduled to land that evening in Kazakhstan. Although he made few casual Amateur Radio contacts, Chiao set an ARISS record during his duty tour by racking up a total of 23 ARISS school group contacts. The first Expedition 11 ARISS school group contact is scheduled for May 4. ==>SECOND TIME'S THE CHARM FOR NEW HAMPSHIRE SCHOOL SPACE CONTACT Youngsters at Maple Avenue Elementary School in Goffstown, New Hampshire, had to wait an extra week, but on April 13, they were able to talk directly via Amateur Radio with Leroy Chiao, KE5BRW, at the controls of NA1SS on the International Space Station. Technical problems cropped up on the originally scheduled date of April 5. The Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) program was able to reschedule the contact for April 13. Chiao told one youngster that while there's no weather per se in space, the ISS can view Earth's weather. The external environment of space does come into play, however, in developing suits for spacewalks, he said. "We really don't run into any kind of environmental weather or anything like that," Chiao explained. "Of course, outside in space it's a vacuum and it's very cold or very hot depending on whether you're in the sun or in the shade. And so those are factors that we consider when we design the spacesuits." During the approximately 10-minute direct VHF contact, the 20 Maple Avenue kids ran smoothly through a list of 20 questions, and Chiao was almost through answering the last when the ISS got out of range of ground station W1SSC, the call sign of Spaceflight Systems Corporation Amateur Radio Club in Nashua. Students taking part in the ARISS contact were in Georgia Paris' fourth grade class, who spoke with NA1SS using Amateur Radio equipment set up at the school specifically for the contact with NA1SS. Responding to another question, Chiao elaborated on experiments that have been under way during his Expedition 10 duty tour. Chiao said the space station's goal is to be a worldwide laboratory. "We've done some interesting experiments on board," Chiao said. "We've done one experiment in particular--something called 'Telemed'--and we use an ultrasound machine to image each other's internal organs and bones and teeth and things like that, taking directions from a doctor on the ground." Chiao has explained in past ARISS school contacts that the Telemed experiment is aimed in part at coming up with ways to monitor the health of space travelers and diagnose problems that might arise during long-term space ventures. The two-man crew, which includes Russian cosmonaut Salizhan Sharipov, also has been growing some pea pods, Chiao said. The Maple Avenue Elementary QSO marked the first Amateur Radio school group contact with a New Hampshire school. An audience of 200 students, teachers, parents, local dignitaries and news media was on hand for the event. Jim Heedles, WW1Y, who served as the Earth station control operator for the contact, thanked all who were involved in helping to make "lifelong memories" for the fourth graders. ARISS <http://www.rac.ca/ariss/> is an educational outreach with US participation by ARRL, AMSAT and NASA. ==>FCC ENFORCEMENT BUREAU REFERS TWO AMATEUR APPLICATIONS FOR HEARINGS The FCC Enforcement Bureau has referred two Amateur Radio Service applications to the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau (WTB) for hearings because of enforcement-related issues. If they agree to go forward with the formal proceedings, Yuriy Ryabinin, W3MMM (ex-KC2LLM)/UR5DEM, of Brooklyn, New York, and Thomas A. Lynch Jr, K6COL, of Los Altos, California, would have to appear in separate sessions before an administrative law judge (ALJ) in Washington, DC. The ALJ would rely on hearing testimony in determining how the FCC should dispose of the respective pending applications. Ryabinin has applied to upgrade from Tech Plus to General, while Lynch is seeking to renew his General ticket. "It is apparent that you either do not have a sufficient understanding of Commission rules or are disregarding Commission rules," FCC Special Counsel for Enforcement Riley Hollingsworth told Ryabinin and Lynch in separate letters March 11 and March 16, respectively. Issues involving Ryabinin's amateur operation in the US attracted the FCC's attention in 2003, when the Commission notified him regarding his alleged operation during contests on frequencies not available to him as a Technician class licensee. The FCC accepted Ryabinin's November 2003 explanation that he was confused about the privileges available to him in the US under his Ukraine licensee. Because Ryabinin is a US citizen and already holds an FCC Amateur Service license, the Commission reminded him in January 2004, he does not enjoy reciprocal operating privileges in the US and must operate under the privileges his US licenses allows. Ryabinin passed the General examination in March 2004 and submitted an upgrade application. The FCC last June notified him that it was reviewing his application as a result of information that Ryabinin had submitted logs showing he'd operated outside of his Tech Plus privileges five times during the 2003 ARRL 10-Meter Contest. Responding last July to the FCC inquiry, Ryabinin again pleaded a mistaken understanding of the rules and "fatigue during competition," and said he would not repeat the errors. Hollingsworth said Ryabinin's explanations of the rule violations were "not acceptable," however. Hollingsworth further noted that the ARRL last October disqualified Ryabinin's single-operator, low-power entry for the ARRL International DX Contest (CW), in which Ryabinin operated as KF0R, then issued to the DX Venture Club of New York City. Whether or not Ryabinin operated under the direction of a qualified control operator, Hollingsworth said, he apparently violated FCC Amateur Service rules either way. In Lynch's case, Hollingsworth noted complaints dating back about a year regarding alleged interference, as well as at least one instance of operating outside his General class privileges. "Your responses have been inadequate," Hollingsworth said, adding that monitoring information "continues to show your apparently deliberate interference" on 40-meter SSB, including complaints as recent as February 2005. Lynch's license expired March 28, 2005. Since he filed a timely renewal application, he will be permitted to continue operating until the FCC makes a decision on whether to grant his application. At some point, the WTB is expected to issue a Hearing Designation Order to each licensee. Hollingsworth noted that the burden of proof in such hearings is on the applicant, not the FCC. In the meantime, Hollingsworth warned both licensees that fines for any violations such as out-of-band operation or deliberate interference normally range from $4000 to $7500. ==>HAM-RADIO-IN-SPACE PIONEER TONY ENGLAND, W0ORE, TO BE ARRL EXPO GUEST Tony England, W0ORE, the second US astronaut to ever use Amateur Radio in space, will be a special guest of the League's at ARRL EXPO 2005 <http://www.arrl.org/announce/nc/2005/> at Dayton Hamvention <http://www.hamvention.org/>. Present plans call for England to be at the ARRL EXPO 2005 area in the Ballarena of the Hara Arena complex Friday, May 20, from 9:30 until 10 AM, and at the ARRL youth activities area from 10 until 10:30 AM. Visitors may want to have England autograph their Dayton Hamvention programs or ARRL Passports. During his NASA career, England served on the support staff for the Apollo 13 and 16 flights. In 1985, England flew the Space Amateur Radio EXperiment (SAREX) during the STS-51F Spacelab-2 mission. He retired from NASA in 1988 after logging 188 hours in space. England, 62, now is Associate Dean for Academic Affairs for the University of Michigan College of Engineering as well as a professor of electrical engineering and computer science and professor of atmospheric, oceanic and space sciences. ==>SOLAR UPDATE Propagation maven Tad "Hey, Mister Sun" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington, reports: Little changed in terms of sunspots and solar flux this week, but it was one of those periods were average daily sunspot numbers were up slightly and average daily solar flux was down a little. Average daily sunspot numbers were up more than 10 points to 50.9, and average daily solar flux was down 5 points to 81.9. Geomagnetic conditions were calmer and quieter, with no really stormy days at all. As for the most unsettled days, the planetary A index was 19 on April 14, while the mid-latitude A index was 14. On April 20, the planetary A index was 21, and the mid-latitude A index was 12. No large sunspots are detected on the sun's far side, and the projection for the next week is for more of the same in terms of solar flux and sunspot numbers. April 25-28 could see a slight rise in sunspot count. April 22-23 could produce some unsettled geomagnetic conditions if the interplanetary magnetic field turns south. Currently, the field points north. Sunspot numbers for April 14 through 20 were 63, 61, 52, 54, 44, 43 and 39, with a mean of 50.9. The 10.7 cm flux was 85.4, 84.9, 82.9, 83.6, 81.3, 78.2 and 77, with a mean of 81.9. Estimated planetary A indices were 19, 13, 7, 5, 8, 8 and 21, with a mean of 11.6. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 14, 7, 4, 4, 5, 6 and 12, with a mean of 7.4. __________________________________ ==>IN BRIEF: * This weekend on the radio: The DX Colombia International Contest, the SP DX RTTY Contest, the Helvetia Contest, and the Florida and Nebraska QSO parties are the weekend of April 23-24. JUST AHEAD: the EUCW/FISTS QRS Party runs from April 24 until April 30. The SBMS 2 GHz and Up WW Club Contest is the weekend of April 30-May 1. The May CW Sprint and the AGCW QRP/QRP Party are May 1. The RSGB 80-Meter Club Championship (SSB) is May 2. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <http://www.arrl.org/contests/> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar <http://www.hornucopia.com/contestcal/index.html> for more info. * ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration: Registration for the ARRL HF Digital Communication (EC-005) and ARRL VHF/UHF--Beyond the Repeater (EC-008) courses remains open through Sunday, April 24. Classes begin Friday, May 6. Students participating in VHF/UHF--Beyond the Repeater (EC-008) will enjoy exploring some of the lesser-used and more intriguing aspects of VHF/UHF operation. HF Digital Communication students will learn to use a variety of HF digital modes. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web page <http://www.arrl.org/cce/> or contact the ARRL C-CE Department <firstname.lastname@example.org>. * Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Course registration: Registration for the ARRL Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level III on-line course (EC-003) opens Monday, April 18, 1201 AM EDT, and will remain open until all available seats have been filled or through the April 23-24 weekend--whichever comes first. Class begins Friday, May 6. Thanks to our grant sponsors--the Corporation for National and Community Service and the United Technologies Corporation--the $45 registration fee paid upon enrollment will be reimbursed after successful completion of the course. Act now! This is the final year of the grant-subsidized classes! Radio amateurs age 55 and older are strongly encouraged to participate. During this registration period, seats are being offered to ARRL members on a first-come, first-served basis. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web page <http://www.arrl.org/cce>. For more information, contact Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan Miller, K3UFG, email@example.com; 860-594-0340. * ARRL Executive Committee bandwidth proposals unchanged for VHF/UHF: The ARRL Executive Committee's bandwidth recommendations for VHF and UHF bands have not changed since the Committee's recommendations of last August. <http://www.arrl.org/announce/bandwidth.html>. They are repeated here. 6 and 2 meters: The proposal preserves the lower 300 kHz in each band for narrowband, weak-signal modes reflecting established practice, but opens the rest of these bands for bandwidths up to 100 kHz. This is intended to permit new modes, particularly multimedia. 1.25 meters: Both segments of this band already permit up to 100 kHz bandwidth for data. The ARRL requested in RM-10413 that spread spectrum emissions be authorized in the 222-225 MHz segment. 70 cm through 1 mm: Present rules permit 100 kHz for data but allow wider bandwidth for TV, generally regarded as up to 6 MHz for vestigial sideband AM in bands below 1240 MHz, noting that FM TV is used in bands above 1240 MHz. In these bands, the rules should minimize regulation of bandwidth to permit maximum flexibility in Amateur operation. The only limitation should be to keep the occupied bandwidth of the emission in the allocated in the band and utilize normal band-sharing protocols. As reported in The ARRL Letter, Vol 24, No 15, the ARRL EC has somewhat altered its recommendations for the HF bands. Visit the ARRL Web site for details <http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2005/04/13/1/>. * Dayton HamventionR to fete award winners: Dayton Hamvention will honor this year's award recipients at an invitation-only dinner Saturday, May 21. The event will not be open to the general public because of space limitations, but it will be videotaped for later presentation. The 2005 Dayton Hamvention award winners are Alan Kaul, W6RCL, Radio Amateur of the Year; Bharathi Prasad, VU2RBI, Special Achievement Award, and Jerry Sevick, W2FMI, Technical Excellence Award. The Hamvention Awards Committee will host the gala, which will feature a banquet and awards ceremony. A formal award presentation will be held Sunday, May 22, during the Hamvention 2005 closing ceremonies just prior to the grand prize drawing. Dayton Hamvention will host the ARRL 2005 National Convention May 20-22 <http://www.arrl.org/announce/nc/2005/>. * First 47-GHz moonbounce QSOs announced: The team of Al Ward, W5LUA, Barry Malowanchuk, VE4MA, Gary Lauterbach, AD6FP, and Sergei Joutiaev, RW3BP, have announced the completion of the first 47-GHz Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) contacts. RW3BP copied the first lunar echoes on 47 GHz in August 2004. That same month, he was heard by AD6FP, W5LUA, VE4MA and VE7CLD. Since the receipt of the first 47-GHz echoes via the moon, numerous tests between RW3BP and AD6FP led to improvements by Joutiaev allowing him to copy calls in January from Lauterbach's lower-power signal. As of April 16, AD6FP, W5LUA and VE4MA have each completed a CW QSO via the moon with RW3BP. "Since Doppler shift can be as much as 100+ kHz at 47 GHz, one must continuously adjust the receive frequency to keep the station centered in the passband," Ward explained. Ward says the operators used various techniques to keep the Doppler-shifted frequency in the receivers' passbands. * ARRL Field Day 2005 publicity information available: Field Day 2005 is the weekend of Saturday and Sunday, June 25-26. Per rule 7.3.2, 100 bonus points are available to FD stations in all classes for bona fide efforts to obtain publicity for your Field Day operation from local media. ARRL Field Day 2005 publicity information now is available on the ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/pio/contact/2005/04/fddocs> for public information officers and clubs. The page includes sample news releases and information on publicizing your participation in Field Day 2005. It also reviews publicity information for "National Take your HT to Work Day" June 21, when hams are encouraged to clip their handheld transceivers on their belts or place them on their desks to raise awareness and prompt inquiries about Amateur Radio from co-workers. Amateur Radio Week 2005 is June 19-26. =========================================================== The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259; <http://www.arrl.org/>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President. The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of interest to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise, and readable. Visit ARRLWeb <http://www.arrl.org/> for the latest news, updated as it happens. The ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/> offers access to news, informative features and columns. ARRL Audio News <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> is a weekly "ham radio newscast" compiled from The ARRL Letter. Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. 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