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Contest Update Issues

The ARRL Contest Update
August 15, 2012
Editor: Ward Silver, NØAX


Don't miss the RTTY edition of the ARRL Rookie Roundup coming this Sunday afternoon! It's a great opportunity for you to exercise those digital muscles and learn a new mode or get better at RTTY contesting if you're already active on HF digital. Those of you licensed for a while can mentor a Rookie (or a team of Rookies in the new multioperator category) or if you haven't tried RTTY contesting, get the rig interfaced to your computer and have fun!


There are no bulletins in this issue.


A golden issue last time!


Complete information for all contests follows the Conversation section

Aug 18-19

  • ARRL 10 GHz and Up Contest
  • ARRL Rookie Roundup--Digital
  • North American QSO Party--Phone
  • NAQCC Monthly QRP Sprint--CW (Aug 15)
  • Dominican Republic Contest--Phone
  • SARTG WW RTTY Contest
  • Russian District Award Contest
  • Keymen's Club of Japan Contest--CW
  • Feld-Hell Gridloc Sprint
  • SARL Digital Contest--Digital
  • Run For the Bacon--CW (Aug 20)

Aug 25-26

  • YO DX Contest
  • ALARA Contest,
  • Hawaii QSO Party
  • SCC RTTY Championship
  • Kansas QSO Party
  • Ohio QSO Party
  • South Africa DX CW Contest

The ARRL has recognized the four new Ontario sections announced by the RAC and shown in this map. The new sections will be used in the exchanges for this year's ARRL November Sweepstakes. Several vendors of regular and contest logging software have announced upgrade plans - please verify that the new VE3 section abbreviations (GTA, ONE, ONN, and ONS) will be supported well in advance of the ARRL Sweepstakes (Nov) and 160 Meter Contest (Dec), both of which use ARRL/RAC sections as multipliers. (Thanks, Doug Mercer VO1DTM/VO1DM CEC, RAC Chief Field Services Officer)

The path to your Sweepstakes Clean Sweep goes through the four new RAC sections of ONN, ONE, ONS, and GTA!

Rich VE3KI provides a convenient list of the the Ontario counties/districts/regional municipalities in the four new sections will be as follows:

  • GTA = Durham, Halton, Peel, Toronto, York
  • ONE = Frontenac, Haliburton, Hastings, Kawartha Lakes, Lanark, Leeds-Grenville, Lennox-Addington, Northumberland, Ottawa, Peterborough, Prescott-Russell, Prince Edward, Renfrew, Stormont-Dundas-Glengarry, and the parts of Nipissing District that are within and south of Algonquin Park
  • ONN = Algoma, Cochrane, Kenora, Manitoulin, Rainy River, Sudbury, Thunder Bay, Timiskaming, and the parts of Nipissing District that are north and west of Algonquin Park
  • ONS = Brant, Brantford, Bruce, Chatham-Kent, Dufferin, Elgin, Essex, Grey, Haldimand, Hamilton, Huron, Lambton, Middlesex, Muskoka, Niagara, Norfolk, Oxford, Parry Sound, Perth, Simcoe, Waterloo, Wellington

How many stations from each section have been active? Well, here's how many were active last year:
2011 ARRL 160: GTA-11, ONS-10, ONE-7, ONN-1(VE3CX)
2011 ARRL SS SSB: GTA-7, ONS-11, ONE-3, ONN-1(VE3XTI)
2011 ARRL SS CW: GTA-9, ONS-5, ONE-6, ONN-0
Look for some "expedition-style" operations from ONN this year!

You'd never guess Bob K8IA was the president of a contest club named the "Arizona Outlaws" would you? He operated on 10 CW during the W1AW/7 operation in the 2012 IARU HF Championship. (Photo courtesy Arizona Outlaws Contest Club)

There is a new CQ World Wide Contest rule: "13. Post-contest correcting of call signs by using any database, recordings or confirming QSO's is not allowed (Rule XII.2 always applies)" reads the new language in the CQ rules. From the article about the rule change, "The message there is very clear, that post-contest log cleanup by using outside aid - whether it is call sign databases or recordings of the contest are now clearly considered against the rules." Let's not make this too complicated - identify your station, log what is sent, send the complete exchange, and don't change your log after the contest except for notes made during the contest period. Period.

Along with the new rules and the shorter log submission deadline noted in the previous issue of this newsletter, CQ magazine will be publishing contest results as much as four months sooner than at present. The new schedule will be phased in over the course of 2013 and will be fully in place by 2014. Editor Dick Moseson W2VU notes, "For one year only (2013), the CQ World Wide VHF Contest results will be published in CQ VHF magazine, and will return to CQ as of 2014, appearing in the January issue."

Jim AD1C reports that, "The Country (CTY) files were updated on 10 August 2012. To install the file, follow the link to your software at the top of the page." A bigger CTY.DAT is also available for everyday logging."

These high-power filters from 4O3A can be used at the output of an amplifier for cleaner signals and less interstation interference. (Image courtesy Innovantennas)

InnovAntennas is now stocking and supporting the Sky Sat Communications filter products and will be making available the balance of the product line during the second half of 2012. Available immediately are the High Power 5-pole and 3-pole Monoband Band Pass Filters (Series S & Series L) for the HF contest bands: 80m, 40m, 20m, 15m and 10m, and the High Power HF Triplexer/Combiner. All 4O3A filters, including the Triplexer/Combiner, are rated for full legal power at high duty cycle modes such as RTTY. (Thanks, Bill AA7XT)

The semi-annual July 2012 report to the ARRL Board by the Contest Advisory Committee is available online. A list of your CAC and VUAC representatives is also available for your thoughts and suggestions.

The Elecraft KX3 checked in at the very top of the Sherwood Engineering receiver rankings. The performance of this small radio that you can hold in your hand is pretty amazing - strong work by the SDR design team! ARRL Lab Manager, Ed Hare W1RFI notes that if you would like more information about these measurements, check out this 2004 QST article and the ARRL Lab Test Procedures Manual.

Getu KB3WWB is one of the Ethiopian nationals operating the new ET3AA club station. (Photo by Ken K4ZW)

The 902 MHz edition of the Fall VHF Sprints has been moved to September 29 from its original October date. (Thanks, Bruce NT4RT)

The DX Sherlock web site of real-time QSO maps has a new URL: (Thanks, Dave N7DB)

The NCDXF, Northern California DX Foundation, has two new directors: ND2T, Tom Berson and K6NA, Glenn Rattmann. You have worked these two fellows from numerous DXpeditions and in lots of contests over the years. Congratulations to both and thanks for your service to the DX and contest communities!

Web Site of the Week - Yes, there was a time when presentations about expeditions and ham radio did not begin with "Here we are at the airport..." For an example of those days when no scientific expedition worth its salt was without a ham, check out this article on Admiral Byrd's South Pole trip by John AE5X!


Lockout - a device, hardware or software, that prevents a multi-operator, single-transmitter entry from transmitting more than one signal at a time.


Erik KD6GHX was one of several operators behind the big W1AW/7 signal on 20 SSB during the recent IARU contest. (Photo courtesy Arizona Outlaws Contest Club)

Sandy N7RQ has just finished an update of the Arizona Outlaws Contest Club website detailing all of the recent W1AW/7 activity in the IARU HF Championship. On the home page, scroll down to the tabulation of W1AW/7 statistics and as instructed, "Click on a station, operator or score below to learn more and see exclusive photos". It sounds like everybody had a great time handing out the multiplier and putting W1AW on the air all across the state. (Thanks, Bob K8IA)

Raytheon has announced its new "Space Fence" radar system for tracking the innumerable tiny bits of space junk in orbit. The existing Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas provides some neat opportunities to listen in on meteor pings as described on With the Perseid meteor shower still active, take a listen and see if you can hear some of the music of the spheres. (From AMSAT Bulletin ANS-225)

We'll be seeing a lot of this code for the coming months as the Mars Rover, Curiosity, generates the Morse characters for "JPL" in its wheel tracks. In theory it's for distance calibration as Doug K1DG describes in his EDN blog - but we all know it was a great hack, too! (Thanks, Paul AA9GG)


Online certificates for the CQ WPX Contest SSB/CW have been enhanced to provide separate certificates for those entrants that participated in one of the Overlay categories (Tribander/Single-Element or Rookie). Online certificates are available for all entries from 2007 and later. Go to the online score database and search for your entry. Follow the [Cert] link at the right side of the score line to go to the Certificates page. Entrants that entered their log in an Overlay category will see a second link on the certificate printing page that enables them to view their Overlay category certificate. (Thanks, CQ WPX Director, Randy Thompson, K5ZD)

Here are more of the ET3AA operators with their mentor, Sid. From left to right are Tsigaye (KB3WWJ), Sid ET3SID, Adula (KB3WXC) and Getu (KB3WWB) (Photo by Ken K4ZW)

Stan EI6DX/UA1OUT has just released a big report analyzing the 2011 CQ World Wide contests. The website has a "live" analyzer and there are lots of statistics on the contests from 2007 through 2011 that make fascinating reading. Bob N6TV finds, " me the most useful and fun is to seethe band openings to a specific area, from a specific area and gives the following instructions:
1. From the EI6DX website, launch the analyzer
2. On the *Source* tab, uncheck *All Zones Available*
3. Click on the little arrow next to *North America* (not the checkbox) to
expand the list
4. Select your CQ WW Zone
5. Click on the *Destination* tab and pick any area using the same method, e.g. Europe or Japan
6. Click the *Refresh* button
7. At the bottom of the graph, click the last button to Maximize Chart
8. Click the next button to the left, *Show/Hide Configuration View*
9. Change Aggregation Interval to 10 minutes and pick any band you want, click Apply to see more detailed band openings
10. Other buttons let produce a nice rate sheet grid instead of graph.

Tack JE1CKA has uploaded the 2011 JIDX-PHONE contest results to the web. He reports that the 2012 JIDX-CW results will be available in a month or so.

Ray N6VR held the fort as W1AW/7 on 75 SSB during the 2012 IARU HF Championship. The Arizona Outlaws Contest Club website has many more photos and statistics. (Photo courtesy Arizona Outlaws Contest Club)

Bank Error In Your Favor - CQ magazine reports that a glitch in the software used to analyze logs submitted for the CQ World Wide DX Contest has resulted in errors in final scores for some participants in the 2011 CQWW DX SSB and CW competitions. (No earlier contests were affected.) The errors - in which a good call sign was flagged as bad - do not affect the order of finish except in very rare instances and correcting the error actually raises scores. Corrected scores for the SSB contest have been posted with CW scores to follow.

The photos, scores, and prize winners of the WRTC Station Test during the IARU HF Championship are now available. WRTC 2014 Co-Chair, Randy K5ZD says, "The station tests provided everything the organizing committee was looking for. We learned a lot, we have a list of things to improve, and we are more excited than ever to host a great event in 2014. If you won one of the prizes for contacting the WRTC test stations, please send an email to to claim your prize."

Adventure Radio Society Spartan Sprinters took to the airwaves the evening of August 6 for the eighth SP of 2012. In the Skinny Division, Andy MacAllister, W5ACM, of Houston, Texas, took top honors with 64 QSOs per pound. Remarkable! Topping the Tubby Division is John Laney, K4BAI, of Columbus, Georgia who amassed 40 contacts. (Thanks, Richard KI6SN)


In the past, there has been some confusion about Rookie Roundup participants identifying properly. This is particularly important when the Rookie is a Technician operating on the HF bands. If you are a Rookie holding a Technician class license, you can either identify using the control operator's call sign or by using your call sign followed by a slash character (this weekend is the RTTY edition of Rookie Roundup) and the call sign of the control operator. For example, to use my station with me being the control operator, Technician class operator KDØSJF must identify as "NØAX" or as "KDØSJF/NØAX". (The latter assumes that I have "loaned" KDØSJF my station for the duration of the contest but am still acting as control operator.) The applicable FCC rule is 97.119. If you hear a Technician call sign operating outside the Technician class privileges, don't be rude - politely inform them that they must use the call sign of the control operator as described in rule 97.119.


The SB-1000 linear amplifier is a good candidate for conversion to 6 meters as described by Bill W6WRT. "I used the technique of stepping down the plate impedance with a small inductor so I could use the original tune and load capacitors. (I also) homebrewed a new tank coil, plate choke and filament choke and installed a pi-net impedance matching circuit in the input." Pictures of the converted amplifier are available online.

The photos of ebay item 110932148153 show a great way to re-use some of the old computer cases stacked up in your garage or basement. While we're on the subject, watch for the terrific cabinets and enclosures of obsolete lab equipment and instruments at swap meets. They are incredibly sturdy and very well made - a new equivalent would cost hundreds of dollars. For the price of new front and back panels, you can have a terrific looking, heavy-duty cabinet. (Thanks, Paul KØUYA)

The Instructables website and weekly project compendium just keep on producing a lot of fun projects from silly to sublime. Here are my favorites over the past month or so:
Metal Bending Tool
Dry Film Solder Mask for Homebrew PC Boards
Bending Copper Pipe (good for making high-Q coils)
Understanding Motor and Gearbox Design

Have you ever wondered just which satellite it is that you sighted sliding along the stars overhead on a dark night? Surprise, surprise - there's an app for that! WhatSat - Satellite Explorer helps you identify and learn about satellites that you see passing overhead in the night sky. It can also be used as a satellite spotting aid. The satellite catalog includes 150 or so of the brightest orbiting objects as identified by NORAD. For each satellite listed there is a description and an image (when available). You can tell which satellites are currently visible or when a specific satellite will be visible. Search for visible ISS passes and impress your friends! WhatSat requires cell service or WiFi to access the server that does satellite flyby calculations. (From AMSAT Bulletin ANS-225)

Bill KB8WYP describes a useful tool, "I use a wire pulling tool called a "creep-zit" to pull radials under fallen trees and logs in the woods. I basically just take one a 6-foot long fiberglass rods (a little over 1/8" diameter), tape the radial to one end, and then I can push it under fallen debris easily. With a little practice you can even get around hidden obstructions in the ground this way.

Packing a lot of utility into a little box, the Radio Boss tackles several interface chores in one standalone piece of equipment. (Image courtesy of Green Heron Engineering, LLC)

Technical Web Site of the Week - Mark K6UFO spotted the new Radio Boss product from Green Heron Engineering. In line with Green Heron's universal rotator control box, Radio Boss integrates a number of different interfaces for different manufacturer protocols. This simplifies the problem of rig control and signal interfacing considerably. Another interesting product is the Green Heron Everywhere line of wireless relay and control interface links.


Broom For Improvement

The lead news story in this issue refers to four new sections created by the RAC and that will be making life interesting for the November ARRL Sweepstakes savants searching for their yearly Clean Sweep mug. We're all going to learn a lot about the geography of Ontario!

This sort of thing has happened before - for example, in 2000 the West Central Florida section was created from the North and South Florida sections, leading to a lot of "West Central What?" comments on the air. In light of the sudden interest in where sections come from and how they were added to (or subtracted from) the Clean Sweep threshold, Ken Harker WM5R took it upon himself to collect this issue's interesting history of the Sweepstakes sections - read on!

73, Ward NØAX

The first "All-Section Sweepstakes" was held in January, 1930 and there were 68 sections. In addition to the sections we know today, there were some interesting differences. The ARRL Field Organization actually covered four countries at the time: the US, Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador, and Cuba. The US territorial possession of the Philippine Islands was its own section (part of the Pacific Division). But the most interesting of the 68 sections in 1930 was probably Georgia-South Carolina-Cuba-Isle of Pines. The Isle of Pines is an island off the coast of Cuba (today known as Isla de la Juventud or Isle of Youth). After the Spanish-American War was concluded in 1898, the sovereignty of the island remained in dispute. American commercial agricultural interests on the island urged the US to pursue a claim on the island against the newly independent Cuba. However, the U.S. Senate ratified a treaty recognizing Cuban sovereignty over the island in 1925. Nonetheless, "Isle of Pines" continued to show up in the ARRL section list until 1940.



Total Sections

18-31 Jan 1930

First All-Section Sweepstakes


15 Oct 1930

San Joaquin Valley (SJV) section created from counties previously assigned to Los Angeles (LAX) and Santa Clara Valley (SCV) sections.


Dec 1930

Porto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI) section deleted; the two territories are consolidated into the Georgia-South Carolina-Cuba-Isle of Pines (GASC) section, which is now listed as "Ga-S.C.-etc." in contest results.


14-28 Feb 1931

Second All-Section Sweepstakes


1 Mar 1931

Florida (FL) section deleted.
Eastern Florida (EFL) section created.
Western Florida (WFL) section created.


12-21 Nov 1932

Third All-Section Sweepstakes


9-18 Dec 1933

Fourth All-Section Sweepstakes


17-26 Nov 1934

Fifth All-Section Sweepstakes


Nov-Dec 1935

Sixth ARRL Sweepstakes

"All-Section" dropped from contest name. Separate CW and phone certificates are issued. The contest is still two weeks long, but now all operators have a 90-hour time limit.


Nov 1936

Seventh ARRL Sweepstakes

Contest now has a 40 hour total time limit across two weekends. All Sweepstakes contests from this point onward use a "two weekends in November" format.


15 Jun 1937

South Carolina (SC) section created. Georgia-South Carolina-Cuba-Etc section becomes Georgia-Cuba-Etc (GA) section.


14 May 1938

West Indies (WI) section created, removing Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands from the Georgia-Cuba-Isle of Pines (GA) section.


5 Jun 1940

FCC issues Order No. 72, prohibiting U.S. amateurs from communications with foreign stations except those operating under U.S. operating authority in U.S. territories. Cuba and Isle of Pines are effectively removed from the Georgia-Cuba-Isle of Pines section, which becomes simply the Georgia (GA) section.


4 Jul 1946

Philippine Islands (PI) gains independence, but remains an ARRL section. KA1 series calls continued to be used by US military servicemen in the Philippine Islands as Auxillary Military Radio System (AMRS) calls.


15 Oct 1946

Northern Minnesota (NMN) section deleted. Southern Minnesota (SMN) section deleted. Minnesota (MN) section created.


1 Feb 1947

Yukon Territories (YT) section created.


7 May 1948

Canal Zone (CZ) section created. Prior to this date, U.S. amateur radio operators in the Canal Zone were represented by the Southeastern Division, but not assigned to any section.


31 Mar 1949

Newfoundland and Labrador becomes the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation. VO1 and VO2 stations remain in the Maritimes (MAR) section.


1 Jul 1949

Philippine Islands (PI) section deleted.


21 Oct 1949

Utah-Wyoming (UTWY) section deleted.
Utah (UT) section created.
Wyoming (WY) section created.


1 Apr 1951

Hawaii (HI) section expanded. U.S. possession in the Pacific Ocean previously represented by the Pacific Division but not assigned to any section are now assigned to the Hawaii Section. This includes the islands of Guam, Canton, Baker, Enderbury, Gardner, Howland, Jarvis, Johnston, Midway, Neeker, Palmyra, American Samoa, Tutuila, and Wake.


12 Apr 1953

Santa Barbara (SB) section created from counties previously assigned to the Los Angeles (LAX) section.


3 Apr 1961

Yukon Territories (YT) section deleted. The announcement of the change in the April, 1962 QST notes that "in contests, the Yukon-NWT will be recognized for multiplier credit as may be warranted."


1 Nov 1962

ARRL November Sweepstakes rules specify that Yukon-NWT (YT/NWT) counts as a section multiplier.


10 Oct 1962

Maryland-Delaware-DC (MDDC) section deleted. Maryland-DC (MDC) section created. Delaware (DE) section created.


1 Mar 1965

Orange (ORG) section created from counties previously assigned to the Los Angeles (LAX) and San Diego (SDG) sections.


2 Sep 1967

Canadian Amateur Radio Federation (CARF) formed. Canadian sections organization continues to be managed by the Canada Division of the ARRL.


1 Jan 1973

Eastern Florida (EFL) section deleted.
Western Florida (WFL) section deleted.
Northern Florida (NFL) section created.
Southern Florida (SFL) section created.


Sep 1975

Hawaii (HI) section renamed Pacific (PAC) section. Change first appears in the September, 1975 issue of QST, but Hawaii (HI) continues to be used in ARRL contest results until the 1976 ARRL November Sweepstakes results are published in the May, 1977 issue of QST.


Sep 1979

Canadian Radio Relay League (CRRL) incorporated as a self-governing and self-administering division of the ARRL. CRRL now manages Canadian sections.


1 Oct 1979

Canal Zone returned to Panamanian sovereignty. Canal Zone (CZ) section deleted.


1 Jan 1987

West Texas (WTX) created from counties previously assigned to North Texas (NTX) and South Texas (STX) sections.


23 Jan 1988

West Indies (WI) section deleted.
Puerto Rico (PR) section created.
Virgin Islands (VI) section created.
Guantanamo Bay assigned to Virgin Islands section.


6 Feb 1989

Washington (WA) section deleted.
Eastern Washington (EWA) section created.
Western Washington (WWA) section created.


2 May 1993

Radio Amateurs of Canada (RAC) formed, merging the Canadian Amateur Radio Federation (CARF) and the Canadian Radio Relay League (CRRL). RAC now manages Canadian sections.


1 Jan 1996

Northern New York (NNY) created from counties previously assigned to Western New York (WNY) section.


1 Apr 1996

Two counties (Herkimer and Otsego) assigned to the newly-created Northern New York (NNY) section are returned to the Western New York (WNY) section.


1 Jan 1998

Newfoundland-Labrador (NL) section created, removing that province from the Maritimes (MAR) section.


1 Apr 1999

Nunavut separates from the Northwest Territories but there is no new section created for the territory. ARRL contests continue to count Nunavut as part of the YT/NWT section multiplier.


15 Jan 2000

West Central Florida (WCF) section created from counties previously assigned to Northern Florida (NFL) and Southern Florida (SFL) sections.


1 Nov 2003

The section multiplier for the Yukon Territories, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut is renamed to Northern Territories (NT).


12 Sep 2012

Ontario (ON) section deleted.
Greater Toronto Area (GTA) section created.
Ontario East (ONE) section created.
Ontario North (ONN) section created.
Ontario South (ONS) section created.



15 August through 28 August

An expanded, downloadable version of QST's Contest Corral in PDF format is available. Check the sponsor's Web site for information on operating time restrictions and other instructions.


ARRL 10 GHz and Up Contest-- Phone, CW, Digital, from Aug 18, 6 AM to Aug 19, 12 AM. Bands (MHz): 10G+. Exchange: 6-character grid locator. Logs due: Oct 19. Rules

ARRL Rookie Roundup-- Digital, from Aug 19, 1800Z to Aug 19, 2359Z. Bands (MHz): 3.5-28. Exchange: Both calls, name, check, S/P/XE or "DX". Logs due: See website. Rules

North American QSO Party-- Phone, from Aug 18, 1800Z to Aug 19, 0600Z. Bands (MHz): 1.8-28. Exchange: Name and state. Logs due: 14 days. Rules

NAQCC Monthly QRP Sprint-- CW, from Aug 15, 0030Z to Aug 15, 0230Z. Bands (MHz): 3.5-14. Monthly on 2nd Tuesday or 3rd Wednesday local time (alternating). Exchange: RST, S/P/C, and NAQCC member number or power. Logs due: 4 days. Rules

Dominican Republic Contest-- Phone, from Aug 18, 0000Z to Aug 19, 2359Z. Bands (MHz): 3.5-7. Exchange: RS and serial. Logs due: Sep 2. Rules

SARTG WW RTTY Contest-- Digital, from Aug 18, 0000Z - see website. Bands (MHz): 3.5-28. Multiple operating periods. Exchange: RST and serial. Logs due: Oct 10. Rules

Russian District Award Contest-- Phone, CW, from Aug 18, 0800Z to Aug 19, 0800Z. Bands (MHz): 1.8-28. Exchange: RS(T), serial or Russian district. Logs due: 30 days. Rules

Keymen's Club of Japan Contest-- CW, from Aug 18, 1200Z to Aug 19, 1200Z. Bands (MHz): 1.8-28, 50. Exchange: RST and JA pref/dist or continent. Logs due: Sep 21. Rules

Feld-Hell Gridloc Sprint-- Digital, from Aug 18, 2000Z to Aug 18, 2200Z. Bands (MHz): 1.8-28. Monthly on 3rd Saturday. Exchange: RST, S/P/C, Feld-Hell nr, 4-char grid square. Logs due: 7 days. Rules

SARL Digital Contest-- Digital, from Aug 19, 1300Z to Aug 19, 16009Z. Bands (MHz): 3.5-14. Exchange: RST and serial. Logs due: 7 days. Rules

Run For the Bacon-- CW, from Aug 20, 0100Z to Aug 20, 0300Z. Bands (MHz): 1.8-28. Monthly on 3rd Sunday night (local). Exchange: RST, S/P/C,




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