*************** The ARRL Letter Vol. 20, No. 40 October 5, 2001 *************** IN THIS EDITION: * +Amateur Radio volunteers still needed in NYC * +Three new ham satellites now in orbit * +FCC plans CORES "mass conversion" for ULS registrants * +AO-40's GPS experiment deemed a success * +Enforcement case highlights FCC certification rules * +Digital conference offers insight on newest technology * +USTTI students learn about ham radio * Solar Update * IN BRIEF: This weekend on the radio +Texas ARES/RACES teams activate following bridge collapse FCC to dismiss filings submitted on outdated Form 605 W1AW completes installation of AO-40 antennas Antenna articles sought Vertex Standard donates loaned gear to Virginia ARES Wisconsin antenna bill clears Assembly Hosts sought for 2002 USA Amateur Radio Direction Finding Championships Clarence E. Sharp, K5DX, SK AMSAT-NA Symposium to feature special event station New URL for ARRL Northwestern Division Web site ZK1NDK North Cook Island operation now good for DXCC credit +Available on ARRL Audio News =========================================================== ==>SALVATION ARMY STILL NEEDS HAM VOLUNTEERS IN NEW YORK CITY Although the Salvation Army has cut one shift of radio operators to support the organization's World Trade Center relief operation in New York City, it still needs fresh Amateur Radio volunteers. "We are still short of people," said Jeff Schneller, N2HPO--who's coordinating the Salvation Army Team Emergency Response Network, or SATERN, operation. The midnight to 8 AM shift has been suspended, but SATERN still needs six Amateur Radio operators per shift--a total of 12 per day--for the indefinite future. Schneller said the SATERN volunteers who have been there the longest now "are getting weary." SATERN needs operators at the Kennedy Airport warehouse with their own base station set up from about 8 AM until about 9 PM--possibly broken into shifts. In addition, SATERN needs operators to ride with trucks to provide communication. Operators start and end shifts at Salvation Army Division HQ on 14th Street in Manhattan, which also needs operators. Schneller said the word he has from Salvation Army is that the organization is happy with the Amateur Radio support it's been getting. "They want us to keep going," he said. So far, he said, some 40 Amateur Radio operators have turned out to help support the Salvation Army relief effort--some from the New York City area but others from as far away as Missouri, North Carolina, Georgia and Florida. "Response from around the nation and the world has been heartwarming," Schneller said, "especially those amateur operators who were willing to put their life on hold, so that they could come help out for a few days or weeks in NYC." Schneller requested that potential volunteers contact him directly: Home, 718-461-0370; Cell, 917-226-1339; Page, 718-939-3939 (give message to operator); Ham radio, Call N2HPO on the 147.270 repeater (141.3 or 127.3 CTCSS). The Salvation Army said this week it's sending additional personnel from the Midwest to New York City to assist those who have been on duty since September 11. Members will offer grief counseling, coordinate food service, be on-site in Salvation Army emergency disaster vehicles and organize supplies and volunteers. ==>KODIAK STAR LAUNCH IS A SUCCESS Following several delays, the Kodiak Star launch vehicle took off into space from Alaska early Sunday, September 30 UTC. The Athena I rocket boosted three Amateur Radio payloads and PICOSat--a technology demonstration satellite--into orbit. Initial indications were that all satellites deployed properly and were being monitored on the ground. The payloads included the APRS-equipped PCsat, built by midshipmen from the US Naval Academy under the guidance of Bob Bruninga, WB4APR, the acknowledged "father of APRS." PCsat is a 1200-baud APRS digipeater designed for use by amateurs using hand-held transceivers or mobiles. PCsat is transmitting 1200 baud AFSK telemetry on 145.825 MHz, but the satellite has not yet been commissioned for general amateur use. "We ask that users please wait while we get the system loaded," Bruninga said. PCsat's downlink has been heard around the world, with reports logged from Alaska and Hawaii as well as from South Africa, Europe, Africa and even Antarctica. Carried into space in addition to PCsat were the Starshine 3 and Sapphire payloads. Starshine3 is a "disco" mirror ball with 9600 baud telemetry on 145.825. Sapphire has 1200-baud telemetry and a voice replay on 437.1 MHz. Starshine 3's mirror ball is visible to the naked eye for earthbound students to track. Chip Margelli, K7JA, spotted the satellite October 2 on the West Coast. "Starshine was at least as bright as Mars," he reported. "Very impressive!" Sapphire is a joint effort between the Naval Academy's Small Satellite Program, Stanford University and Washington University at St. Louis. Starshine is a NASA payload. The Kodiak Star launch--the first orbital mission from the Kodiak launch complex--had to be delayed several times--most recently due to high solar flare activity this past week. Earlier delays resulted from unsuitable weather conditions, a problem with a tracking radar, and travel delays because of the recent air traffic shutdown following the September 11 terrorist attacks. For more information, visit the PCsat Web site, <http://web.usna.navy.mil/~bruninga/pcsat.html>. For more information on Sapphire, visit the Stanford University Space Systems Development Laboratories Web site, <http://ssdl.stanford.edu/aa/projects/squirt1/sapphire_overview.html>. The Starshine Web site is <http://www.azinet.com/starshine/> ==>CORES/FRN "MASS CONVERSION" PLANNED FOR ULS REGISTRANTS Before the switchover to mandatory Commission Registration System (CORES) registration on December 3, 2001, the FCC plans to do a "mass conversion" from its Universal Licensing System (ULS) database. Once CORES becomes mandatory in December, everyone doing business with the FCC--licensed or not--must obtain and use a 10-digit FCC Registration Number--or FRN. The FCC called the move is "a first step" toward streamlining fee collection and tracking. Many amateurs registered with the ULS were assigned an FRN by CORES in a mass conversion last year. Affected amateurs were notified by mail. An FCC Wireless Telecommunications Bureau spokesperson told ARRL this week that another mass conversion will be done prior to December. As a result, anyone who has registered a Taxpayer Identification Number--typically an individual's Social Security Number--with the FCC will be assigned an FRN, which will appear in the FCC amateur database. The requirement to obtain an FRN extends to applicants for an Amateur Radio license as well as to anyone required to pay a fee to the FCC, such as those applying for a vanity call sign. An FRN will not be needed to file comments in rulemaking proceedings, however. Amateur Service licensees not already registered in the ULS are encouraged to register their TINs soon, to save the step of a second CORES registration after December 3. To register, visit the FCC's ULS Web site <http://www.fcc.gov/wtb/uls> and click on "Register TIN/Call Sign." (NOTE: The Universal Licensing System will be down for scheduled maintenance from 10 PM Eastern Time Friday, October 5, until 8 AM Eastern Time Monday, October 8.) The FCC established CORES last year and has been in the process of implementing it. The FCC's Wireless Telecommunications Bureau concedes that a lot of issues remain undecided regarding how CORES/FRN will work for the Amateur Service. For more information on CORES/FRN, visit the FCC CORES Web site <https://svartifoss2.fcc.gov/cores/CoresHome.html>. ==>AO-40 SUCCESSFULLY TESTS GPS EXPERIMENT AMSAT News Service reports that the GPS experiment on the AO-40 satellite has undergone successful testing. The experiment--supplied and sponsored by NASA--is designed to determine if it is possible to get positional data while outside of the GPS ring of satellites. "We received a signal on the apogee receiver from about 52,000 km out with good signal levels," said Jim White, WD0E, who's been the AMSAT coordinator and chief operator for this activity. "Further data is being gathered and those downloaded so far are being analyzed." There are two GPS receivers on AO-40, A and B. The A receiver is for receiving signals while in the vicinity of apogee--when the satellite is farthest from Earth. The B receiver provides signal reception in the vicinity of perigee--when the satellite is closest to Earth. Both receivers are operational, and data are passed from the receivers through the RUDAK digital transponder to the S-band transmitter. AMSAT-VP for Human Spaceflight Programs Frank Bauer, KA3HDO, was instrumental in setting up the GPS experiment. "If this experiment goes the way I expect, it will revolutionize the way we use GPS in space," Bauer said. "Many future HEO (high Earth orbit) spacecraft will be able to take advantage of GPS for autonomous navigation and station keeping." Earlier this month, AO-40 ground controllers successfully tested the spacecraft's 24-GHz transmitter. The K-band transmitter on 24.048 GHz was activated September 9 on orbit 396 and connected to the passband and beacon inputs that feed the S2 (2.4 GHz) transmitter. For more information on AO-40, visit the AMSAT-NA Web site, <http://www.amsat.org>. ==>ENFORCEMENT CASE HIGHLIGHTS FCC CERTIFICATION RULES The FCC's Riley Hollingsworth used the occasion of a recent Warning Notice to hammer home the FCC's position on the sale of RF amplifiers that have not received FCC certification--formerly called "type acceptance." In a September 19 letter to Extra licensee Sidney Lee Martin, KD4YBC, Hollingsworth reiterated an earlier FCC warning to Martin that he cease commercial marketing of non-certificated external RF amplifiers and amplifier kits capable of operating below 144 MHz. In 1978, the FCC banned the manufacture and sale of any external RF amplifier or amplifier kit capable of operating below 144 MHz without a grant of certification from the FCC. The rules specifically prohibit manufacture and sale of amps that operate between 24 and 35 MHz as a means to stem the flow of illegal Citizens Band amplifiers. The case arose from a February 11, 2000, warning to Martin from the FCC's Detroit office as a result of a classified ad Martin had run in QST. The ad featured the sale of external Amateur Radio RF amplifier kits for HF and 6 meters. The FCC letter admonished Martin that selling or offering such units for sale violated Section 2.815 of the FCC's rules. Martin--who operated a one-man business called RF Electronics in South Carolina--countered with his interpretation that he was allowed, under FCC Part 97 Amateur Service rules, to sell such kits as one amateur to another under an exception to the certification rules. Martin argued that Section 97.315 of the Amateur Service rules permitted his licensed customers to purchase from him--as another licensee--and construct or modify one model of a non-certificated RF power amp or kit per calendar year for that licensee's personal use. The FCC rejected that analysis, however. Hollingsworth emphasized that Section 2.815(c) of the FCC's rules requires all external RF power amplifier kits that can operate below 144 MHz after assembly be FCC-certificated before they can be made, sold, leased, marketed, imported, shipped or distributed. He noted that other provisions of Section 2.815 apply only to certain already fabricated amplifiers and do not exempt amplifier kits, particularly those capable of operating between 24 and 35 MHz after assembly. Hollingsworth said Section 97.315 also "specifically prohibits the use in the Amateur Service of an amplifier that the operator had constructed from a non-certified kit." He also noted that, in addition to kits, Martin's RF Electronics Web site had been selling non-certificated, assembled RF power amplifiers for use below 144 MHz. Hollingsworth said at least three of the assembled models were advertised as operational between 24 and 35 MHz. Hollingsworth said FCC rules permit an individual amateur to construct or modify a non-certificated RF power amplifier once per calendar year for use at that amateur's own station--although the unit may not be built from a kit--and the amateur may then sell the amplifier to another licensee or dealer. The rules do not provide for mass marketing or manufacturing and marketing kits or assembled amplifiers as part of a business, Hollingsworth said. He added that the FCC would prosecute any violations and take enforcement action against Martin's amateur license. Martin's Web site no longer offers any RF amplifiers for sale. ==>CINCINNATI HOSTS 2001 DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE Despite reduced attendance in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks, the 2001 Digital Communications Conference forged ahead in Cincinnati, Ohio, September 21-23. The conference was co-sponsored by the ARRL and TAPR--Tucson Amateur Packet Radio. At the Friday afternoon Automatic Position Reporting System (APRS) symposium, Byon Garrabrant, N6BG, introduced the Tiny Trak II, a miniature TNC designed for portable applications. Its innovative features include "Smart Beaconing" in which the Tiny Trak increases the beacon rate automatically according to the speed the tracked object--such as an automobile--is moving. Smart Beaconing also attempts to detect when the moving object makes a sudden course change and immediately sends a beacon to update the position. During public service events where many APRS stations are active in the same area, the Tiny Trak II provides a means to assign precise beacon intervals to each station to minimize interference. Steve Bible, N7HPR, updated the audience on the evolution of the Easy Trak antenna rotator controller. He raised eyebrows when he introduced the Easy Trak Jr, a truly tiny rotator controller approximately the size of a human thumb. It's designed to plug into any PC serial port. Bible says the Easy Trak Jr should be available by year's end and sell for under $100. Saturday forums ranged from a satellite seminar courtesy of Steve Coy, K8UD to a humorous CirCad presentation by Jay Craswell, W0VNE. QST Editor Steve Ford, WB8IMY, discussed PSK31 and other innovative digital communications modes in two separate seminars Saturday afternoon. Bible and Gary Barbour, AC4DL, offered back-to-back forums on software-defined radios, DSP and digital voice. At the Saturday banquet, Tony Curtis, K3RXK, spoke on the history of Amateur Radio in space. Curtis noted that the first Amateur Radio satellite--OSCAR 1--was launched nearly 40 years ago. Amateur satellite enthusiasts now are looking toward the possibility of landing a communications package on the lunar surface or even on Mars, he said. The 2002 Digital Communications Conference will be held in Denver, Colorado. ==>USTTI CLASS OF 2001 LEARNS ABOUT AMATEUR RADIO Students from five African nations and an observer from Canada recently attended the United States Telecommunications Training Institute/International Amateur Radio Union course on Amateur Radio administration at ARRL Headquarters. The course was held September 26-28. Coordinated by USTTI and presented jointly by IARU and ARRL staffers, the program covers--among other topics--the International Telecommunication Union and ITU regulations, the IARU, spectrum management, emergency communication, digital communication, satellites, electromagnetic interference, international licensing, and Amateur Radio testing and licensing. The trainees also constructed a simple 40-meter receiver in the ARRL Lab. Attending this year's session were Samson Nyatia of Uganda, Davie Mulambia of Zambia, Mohamed Ouhamou of Morocco, Aron Kilangwa of Tanzania, Adeyinka Odunsi of Nigeria, and Daniel Lamoureux, VE2KA, of Montreal, Canada. Lamoureux, an international member of ARRL, monitored the course and plans to teach it in French at a later date. All of the students are in occupations in their home countries that involve the use of telecommunications. Teaching the majority of the Amateur Radio Administration Course were ARRL Technical Relations Manager Paul Rinaldo, W4RI, and Technical Relations Specialist Jon Siverling, WB3ERA, and ARRL Volunteer Examiner Coordinator Manager Bart Jahnke, W9JJ. Assisting from the ARRL Laboratory staff were Lab Supervisor Ed Hare, W1RFI; RFI Engineer John Phillips, K2QAI, and Test Engineer Mike Tracy, KC1SX. Assistant to the Executive Vice President Lisa Kustosik, KA1UFZ, served as USTTI coordinator. For more information, visit the USTTI Web site, <http://ustti.org/>. ==>SOLAR UPDATE Propagation wizard Tad Cook, K7VVV, Seattle, Washington, reports: Solar flux and sunspot numbers were lower this week. This is no surprise, because the flux had reached a new high for this solar cycle during the previous week. Average daily sunspot numbers dropped more than 45 points and solar flux was down more than 25 points. Indicators that did not drop were those tied to geomagnetic stability. Average daily planetary A index increased by 16 points to 29.6. The most active days were Monday through Wednesday, when the planetary A index was 50, 43 and 53. Planetary K index reached a high of 7 on Wednesday, indicating a geomagnetic storm. For higher latitudes the peak day for geomagnetic activity was Tuesday, when Alaska's College A index was 82, and the College K index reached 8. The geomagnetic activity was caused by a series of solar wind disturbances. In addition to absorption of HF signals over high latitude paths, there were some impressive aurora displays. Current predictions project solar flux decreasing to 185 on Friday, then increasing to 190 on Saturday and 195 on Sunday and Monday. Geomagnetic indices should be quiet to unsettled. The Next peak in solar flux is projected around October 22 or 23. Flux values are expected to rise above 200 after October 14 and above 250 after October 19. Sunspot numbers for September 27 through October 3 were 279, 234, 233, 230, 289, 236 and 196, with a mean of 242.4. The 10.7-cm flux was 269.5, 284.5, 239.5, 235.8, 216.5, 200.9 and 191.7, with a mean of 234.1. Estimated planetary A indices were 10, 13, 21, 17, 50, 43 and 53 with a mean of 29.6. __________________________________ ==>IN BRIEF: * This weekend on the radio: The TARA PSK31 Rumble, the Oceania DX Contest (SSB), the Arkansas and California QSO parties, the EU Autumn Sprint (SSB), the QCWA QSO Party, the RSGB 21/28 MHz Contest (SSB) are the weekend of October 6-7. The 10-10 Day Sprint is October 10, and the YLRL Anniversary Party (CW) is October 10-12. JUST AHEAD: The ARRL International EME Competition, the 902 MHz and Above Fall Sprint, the Oceania DX Contest (CW), the EU Autumn Sprint (CW), the Pennsylvania QSO Party, the FISTS Fall Sprint, the Iberoamericano Contest, and the North American Sprint (RTTY) are the weekend of October 13-14. See the ARRL Contest Branch page, http://www.arrl.org/contests/ and http://www.hornucopia.com/contestcal/weeklycont.html for more info. * Texas ARES/RACES teams activate following bridge collapse: Disaster struck in South Texas early on the morning of September 15 when a 240-foot section of the Queen Isabella Causeway between South Padre Island and Port Isabel, Texas, collapsed after barges slammed into the bridge supports. The mishap sent several vehicles plummeting into the water 80 feet below and claimed 11 lives. The Texas Department of Public Safety contacted John Teer, AK5Z, to request Amateur Radio assistance with communications, because all phone lines between South Padre Island and the mainland had been severed. "I called around to get volunteers to place on the Island EOC and the Port Isabell EOC," Teer reports. The DPS provided boat transportation to the Island for an operator. "We provided 2-meter communication for government and Red Cross officials on Saturday and Sunday until landline telephone and cell phone communications could be re-established," Teer said. Participating in addition to Teer were Pat Patterson, N5SLI, Virginia Scarth, KC5SAM, Ed Scarth, W8AHU, and Gregg Sargent, KA0ARS. * FCC to dismiss filings submitted on outdated Form 605: The FCC's Wireless Telecommunications Bureau has announced that, starting Monday, October 15, it will dismiss all submittals it receives on Form 605 Quick-Form Application for Authorization in the Ship, Aircraft, Amateur, Restricted and Commercial Operator, and General Mobile Radio Service that bear edition dates prior to March 2001. This change does not affect applicants filing on-line via the Universal Licensing System (ULS). WTB encourages applicants to use ULS to speed application processing and to have access to the other information available via the ULS. The FCC advises that amateurs can avoid problems by submitting on-line application via the FCC's Universal Licensing System Web site, <http://www.fcc.gov/wtb/uls>. To obtain a current copy of Form 605, visit the FCC "Forms" page, <http://www.fcc.gov/wtb/csinfo/orderfrm.html>. Paper copies of Form 605 also are available from the FCC Forms Distribution Center, 800-418-3676.--FCC * W1AW completes installation of AO-40 antennas: Maxim Memorial Station W1AW is now 100% AO-40 ready. XX Towers Inc--the ARRL tower service contractor--recently completed the installation of satellite antennas and an az-el rotator atop the center tower on W1AW's antenna farm. The array consists of a 2-meter 20-element crossed Yagi, a 70-cm 15-element crossed Yagi, a 23-cm 23-element Yagi and a 13-cm 17-turn helix. W1AW Station Manager Joe Carcia, NJ1Q, says he's been able to copy downlink telemetry but has yet to make a QSO via AO-40, primarily due to conflicts between the station's bulletin transmission schedule and the availability of AO-40. * Antenna articles sought: ARRL Antenna Compendium Editor Dean Straw, N6BV, is seeking additional, fresh antenna articles for volume 7 of the Compendium. The popular Compendium book series features previously unpublished articles dealing with antennas, transmission lines and propagation. The deadline to submit manuscripts is January 31, 2002. For more information or to submit article manuscripts, contact Dean Straw, 5328 Fulton St, San Francisco, CA 94121; email@example.com. * Vertex Standard donates loaned gear to Virginia ARES: Vertex Standard (Yaesu) has donated several pieces of Amateur Radio gear to Virginia ARES. The manufacturer had arranged to loan an FT-7100 transceiver with power supply and the three VX-5 hand-held transceivers during the Virginia ARES response to assist the Salvation Army at the Pentagon attack site. When Virginia SEC Tom Gregory, N4NW, e-mailed to thank Vertex Standard and to inquire about returning the equipment, Vertex Standard Executive Vice President Mikio Maruya, WA6F told him that Virginia ARES was welcome to keep it on hand for future emergencies. "We hope it will provide you with long and lasting use for all your emergency needs," Maruya said. "We were happy to assist in this emergency effort." Gregory said the Vertex Standard gear "allowed us to meet the needs of providing continuous Amateur Radio support to the Salvation Army." The Woodbridge, Virginia, Ham Radio Outlet store cooperated in providing the Virginia ARES team with the needed equipment on September 13. * Wisconsin antenna bill clears Assembly: The pending Wisconsin Amateur Radio antenna (PRB-1) bill, AB-368, was approved by the Wisconsin Assembly October 2 on a voice vote. There was no debate. The measure now heads to the Wisconsin Senate. Many Wisconsin hams reportedly had called or e-mailed their Assembly representatives prior to the vote. The bill's Senate sponsor is Sen Fred Risser. The measure will be referred to a Senate committee and another public hearing will be held. Information on how to contact Wisconsin lawmakers is available via the Badger State Smoke Signals Web site, <http://www.bsss.org.>. A copy of the pending legislation is on the Wisconsin Legislature Web site, <http://www.legis.state.wi.us/2001/data/AB-368.pdf>. * Hosts sought for 2002 USA Amateur Radio Direction Finding Championships: The final call has been issued for clubs, club councils and non-club groups interested in hosting the second USA ARDF Championships in 2002. "This call comes now, because the event must take place in the spring or early summer, in order to serve as a qualifying event as Team USA forms for the 2002 ARDF World Championships in Slovakia," explained ARRL ARDF Coordinator Joe Moell, K0OV. One proposal already been received for a "weekend championship" next April. Other proposals are welcome, and preliminary indications of intent should be submitted by October 15 via e-mail or US mail to Joe Moell, K0OV, PO Box 2508, Fullerton, CA 92837; firstname.lastname@example.org. The first USA Amateur Radio Direction Finding Championships were held August 1-3 in Albuquerque, New Mexico <http://www.arrl.org/news/features/2001/08/24/1/;. For more information on Amateur Radio Direction Finding, visit Moell's Homing In Web site, <http://www.homingin.com>. * Clarence E. Sharp, K5DX, SK: Internationally known DXer and contester Clarence E. Sharp, K5DX, of Highlands, Texas, died September 3 following a long illness. He was 80. First licensed in 1946 as W5NMA, Sharp--who became known by his last name--soon was chasing DX with homebrew transmitters and antennas and a military surplus receiver. His welding skills--developed from his years as a machinist--came in handy when he built his own 80-foot freestanding tower from scrap steel pipe. Later antenna designs involved multi-element, multi-band cubical quads and towers up to 140 feet. His antenna farms of the 1950s and 1960s are the stuff of legend in DX and contesting circles. An ARRL member, Sharp was on the DXCC Honor Roll with 379 entities (mixed). Sharp also was an accomplished contester on SSB and CW, plying his skills in various operating events. Survivors include his wife, Irma, and three sons. * AMSAT-NA Symposium to feature special event station: Special event station W4O will be on the air from the 2001 AMSAT-NA Symposium and Annual Meeting, October 5-7, in Atlanta. Conference Chair Steve Diggs, W4EPI, says W4O will be active on HF, satellite, local FM voice and APRS. Kenwood National Sales Manager Paul Middleton, K4NUH, will speak at the Saturday night banquet on October 6. The subject of his presentation will be "Amateur Radio--Hobby and Industry." Additional details about W4O and the 2001 AMSAT-NA Symposium in Atlanta, Georgia, are on the AMSAT-NA Web site, <http://www.amsat.org/amsat/symposium>. Proceedings of the AMSAT-NA 19th Space Symposium and AMSAT-NA Annual Meeting are available from ARRL for $20. Visit the ARRL Products Catalog, <http://www.arrl.org/catalog/?item=8535>. * New URL for ARRL Northwestern Division Web site: The ARRL Northwestern Division Web site has a new address, effective this week. The new Web address is http://www.nwarrl.org. Glenn Moore, N7VBW, is the Webmaster. * ZK1NDK North Cook Island operation now good for DXCC credit: ARRL DXCC Manager Bill Moore, NC1L, has announced approval of ZK1NDK, North Cook Island, for DXCC credit. Documentation now has been reviewed and okayed for DXCC credit. Those who submitted ZK1NDK previously and were denied credit may contact DXCC <email@example.com>, and have their records updated without having to resubmit cards. =========================================================== The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259; http://www.arrl.org. 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