*************** The ARRL Letter Vol. 22, No. 36 September 12, 2003 *************** IN THIS EDITION: * +IARU already looking toward next WRC * +"Old-fashioned" ham radio keeps Bermuda in touch during hurricane * +Astronaut visits collegiate alma mater via ham radio * +President Haynie addresses 911 Commemorative Net * +FCC asks utility to try harder to fix power line noise * +ARRL announces contest rule changes * Solar Update * IN BRIEF: This weekend on the radio ARRL Emergency Communications course registration ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration ARRL HQ job opportunity IRTS disallows claim for first two-way transatlantic 2-meter QSO Court kicks New York ham's "police radio" case Grassroots effort beats the odds in Florida county Vote on QST Cover Plaque Award +Available on ARRL Audio News =========================================================== ==>IARU ADMINISTRATIVE COUNCIL LOOKS TO THE FUTURE The focus was on the future when the International Amateur Radio Union <http://www.iaru.org/> Administrative Council met September 6-7 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The council reviewed in detail the results of World Radiocommunication Conference 2003 (WRC-03) as they affected the Amateur and Amateur-Satellite services and congratulated and thanked all individuals and organizations contributing to the "satisfactory outcome." A compromise to move broadcasting from 7100 to 7200 kHz by early 2009 was a major result of WRC-03. In Amsterdam, the council began considering the prospect of further progress on the 40-meter issue during the next World Radiocommunication Conference, tentatively set for 2007. "While considerable progress was made at WRC-03 toward fulfilling Amateur Service spectrum requirements at 7 MHz, the requirements were not fully satisfied and there may be an opportunity to revisit the issue at WRC-07," the IARU said. The IARU's stated goal is for a 300 kHz worldwide allocation at 7 MHz. Four hours of the meeting were devoted to strategic planning that scanned the horizon out to 2010. Among issues in the near term, the IARU plans to participate in International Telecommunication Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) study group sessions concerning the interference potential of high data rate telecommunication systems using power lines--known in the US as Broadband over Power Line (BPL) or power line carrier (PLC) technology. Looking further ahead, discussion dealt with Amateur Radio-related topics that could come up at WRC-07. The WRC-07 agenda includes two items of interest to the Amateur Service--a review of allocations between 4 and 10 MHz and a possible secondary low-frequency amateur allocation in the vicinity of 136 kHz. In the aftermath of WRC-03, the council urged IARU member-societies to call to the attention of their administrations "the desirability of adopting specific changes in their domestic regulations for the amateur and amateur-satellite services, so that they will be consistent with the revised Article 25 of the international Radio Regulations." In that vein, the IARU governing body called for the removal of Morse code as an examination requirement to operate on HF. The council reiterated its stance first taken in 2001 that Morse code proficiency "as a qualifying criterion for an HF amateur license is no longer relevant to the healthy future of Amateur Radio." "IARU policy is to support the removal of Morse code testing as a requirement for an amateur license to operate on frequencies below 30 MHz," the IARU Administrative Council resolved. At the same time, the council's resolution recognized Morse code as "an effective and efficient mode of communication used by many thousands of radio amateurs." It also took into account ITU-Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) Recommendation M.1544, which sets down the minimum qualifications of radio amateurs. World Radiocommunication Conference 2003 left it up to individual countries to determine if they want amateur applicants desiring to operate below 30 MHz to first demonstrate Morse proficiency. The council also reviewed and updated a working document that describes the spectrum requirements for the Amateur and Amateur-Satellite services, particularly to reflect the results of WRC-03. In other business, the council endorsed nominations for 2004-2009 officeholders. Past ARRL President Larry Price, W4RA, was nominated for a second term as IARU president. Timothy S. Ellam, VE6SH/G4HUA, was nominated as vice president. IARU member-societies must ratify the nominations. New terms of office begin next May 9. The council recognized retiring IARU Vice President David Wardlaw, VK3ADW, for his long and devoted service to the IARU. ==>HAM RADIO KEPT BERMUDA CONNECTED WHEN ALL ELSE FAILED Amateur Radio became a primary means of contact between Bermuda and the rest of the world as Hurricane Fabian swept across the island September 5, claiming at least four lives and causing extensive property damage in some areas. Authorities in Bermuda this week were assessing its extent. A dangerous category 3 storm, Fabian took out power to some 25,000 homes--about two-thirds of the island--as well as all radio and TV stations. Additionally, generator problems took the government's emergency FM station off the air for a time. Tony Siese, VP9HK, reports the police operations center was evacuated after the 120-MPH winds took off part of its roof. Siese said the only contact with the outside world for a couple of hours was via hams like himself relaying information on 2 meters to HF operators and getting weather reports from the National Hurricane Center via the Hurricane Watch Net <http://www.hwn.org/> on 20 meters. He said that when the government emergency station dreturned to the air, amateurs provided it with updated National Hurricane Center reports from the HWN. Hurricane Watch Net Manager Mike Pilgrim, K5MP, reports his net on 14.325 MHz secured operations September 6 at 0300 UTC "after a very long and busy day." Participating HWN volunteers feed ground-level weather data to forecasters via WX4NHC <http://www.wx4nhc.org/> at the National Hurricane Center. WX4NHC also operates with a volunteer staff. The weather data and information help meteorologists to develop more accurate storm forecasts. "We had excellent assistance and vital communications from five VP9 hams who, unfortunately, had to resort to makeshift antennas and back-up battery power as the storm approached their locations," Pilgrim said. WX4NHC Assistant Amateur Radio Coordinator Julio Ripoll, WD4JR, said that while news reporters on Bermuda found themselves uncharacteristically out of touch, "old-fashioned" ham radio HF technology got through. As he put it, "brave Bermuda hams, using car batteries, basic wire antennas and only 50 W of power, were able to send those valued 'surface reports' and receive vital hurricane advisories." Decent conditions on 20 meters also helped. Also pitching in were Salvation Army Team Emergency Radio Network (SATERN) volunteers. "The SATERN Net stood by two days at full alert monitoring for information from Bermuda as Hurricane Fabian raged through the island," said National SATERN Coordinator Pat McPherson, WW9E. SATERN Territorial Coordinator Rick Shirran, VE3NUZ/VP9, said that with power and telephone service down, "the only communication that held up during the event was that of the members of the Radio Society of Bermuda via 2 meters, and HF on the Hurricane Watch Net and the SATERN Net." Shirran lost part of his own roof and the driven element to his antenna. He got back on the air using a makeshift antenna and power from a car battery. Shirran said it could take more than two weeks to restore power to Bermuda. Telephone service "remains tentative," he said at week's end. The airport was only open to daylight flights as of September 11. Amateur Radio reports gathered September 7 by Dick Montgomery, N3DV, on the 20-meter Bermuda Net indicated many trees down, damage to docked boats and amateur antennas blown away, but power slowly being restored. National Hurricane Center Director Max Mayfield expressed his sincere thanks to amateurs who supplied critical information during Fabian. "We never would have known what was going on in Bermuda without your help," he said. "You are a part of the hurricane team, and it is a pleasure to work with you." ==>ED LU VISITS ALMA MATER VIA HAM RADIO NASA International Space Station Science Officer Ed Lu, KC5WKJ, spoke September 4 with students at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Lu is a Cornell Class of 1984 alumnus and holds a BS in electrical engineering from the Ivy League school. The contact, arranged through the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) program, marked the first time students at the university had spoken to an astronaut in space. Among other topics, the Cornell students were interested in hearing about NASA's options to replace its aging--and currently grounded--shuttle fleet. At the controls of NA1SS aboard the ISS, Lu replied that NASA is looking closely at a "much smaller, much simpler vehicle"--the Orbital Space Plane--to transport ISS crews in the future. "It would launch on an expendable rocket, and the idea is to make the thing much less maintenance-intensive than the shuttle is," Lu said. "And I hope we can get such a thing operational in the next six or seven years." He said design of the OSP has not yet been finalized. Lu also said he "absolutely" would be interested in being part of the first human spaceflight to Mars. "I'm hoping that before my career is up at NASA that I do get a chance to do something like that," he said. Cornell Amateur Radio Club (W2CXM) President Chase Million, KB9YER, says he's planning on a career in the space industry upon graduation. "Today was more than just a hands-on experience," he said. "We actually got to talk to a guy who is on the space station!" Mike Hammer, N2VR, the radio club's faculty adviser, set up the Earth station for the direct 2-meter contact. While at Cornell, Lu was a Merrill Presidential Scholar and a member of the Big Red wrestling team. The Cornell Amateur Radio Club <http://w2cxm.mae.cornell.edu/>--an ARRL-affiliated club--dates back to 1915. Approximately 40 people were on hand for the successful ARISS contact. Lu also spoke with students at his high school alma mater, R. L. Thomas High School in Webster, New York, on September 10. ARISS <http://www.rac.ca/ariss/> is an international effort with support from ARRL, NASA and AMSAT.--Cornell University provided some information for this story ==>PRESIDENT HAYNIE ADDRESSES SEPTEMBER 11 ANNIVERSARY NET On the second anniversary of the September 11, 2001, terror attacks, ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, joined Amateur Radio operators across the US and around the world in pausing to remember those who died that day. Haynie was among the more than 1400 amateurs checking into the 911 Commemorative Net <http://www.911net.org/> organized by Len Signoretti, N2LEN. The net linked repeaters across the country--many via the Internet--and included opportunities to check in via EchoLink, IRLP and eQSO nodes. In his remarks, Haynie addressed Amateur Radio's obligations in the aftermath of the terror attacks two years ago. "One of the reasons we have a license and the privileges we have here in the United States is to provide a voluntary, noncommercial communication service particularly with respect to providing emergency communications," Haynie said. "Since 9/11, our government at the federal, state and local levels have a new respect for the ability of Amateur Radio operators to do just that: Provide communications when all others have failed." Citing the late President John F. Kennedy's call, "Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country," Haynie said hams can do a lot for their country. "We can be vigilant, we can be trained and we can be ready!" he declared. "This is a task that we can do, and you can do it well." Haynie expressed his appreciation for those who volunteered in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terror attacks and for those amateurs who continue to assist in disasters and emergencies. Seven Amateur Radio operators died in the World Trade Center and Pentagon disasters: Steven A. "Steve" Jacobson, N2SJ; William V. "Bill" Steckman, WA2ACW; Michael G. Jacobs, AA1GO; Robert D. "Bob" Cirri Sr, KA2OTD; William R. "Bill" Ruth, W3HRD; Gerard J. "Rod" Coppola, KA2KET; and Winston A. Grant, KA2DRF. During this week's memorial activities, The Salvation Army set up canteen operations at three New York City locations on September 11 to serve those attending. The Salvation Army Team Emergency Radio Network (SATERN) supported necessary communication on Amateur Radio VHF simplex. ==>FCC ASKS POWER COMPANY TO TRY HARDER TO RESOLVE NOISE COMPLAINTS The FCC has asked American Electric Power Company of Columbus, Ohio, to take a closer look at several power line noise complaints and try harder to resolve them. The cases involve complaints from four Amateur Radio operators in Ohio, Indiana and Oklahoma. "While we certainly appreciate the considerable effort that AEP afforded this matter, we are puzzled by the lack of results," FCC Special Counsel Riley Hollingsworth wrote August 26 in a letter to AEP Senior Vice President Marsha P. Ryan. "In most cases, a noise source can be located easily by trained personnel using the proper equipment." AEP responded February 10 to the FCC's initial correspondence regarding the four cases. Hollingsworth says, however, that follow-up reports from the complainants suggest discrepancies exist between what AEP told the FCC and what the complainants report. Hollingsworth said evidence to date indicates that none of the cases has been satisfactorily resolved. In one case, AEP erroneously identified the amateur's own antenna as the source of the noise. Jerry Daugherty, W9FS, of Indiana told the FCC that he's heard nothing from AEP and was not even aware that the utility was considering his case closed. "As of June 20, 2003, the noise was present at VHF and coming from several different locations," Hollingsworth said, citing information from Daugherty. James Kiskis, W8PA, of Ohio reported to the Commission that, although interference identified as coming from two utility poles was fixed, it has since returned from one of them. Kiskis told Hollingsworth that an AEP interference investigator showed up at his residence June 23 and--using a spectrum analyzer hooked up to Kiskis' antenna--found strong noise on 20 and 10 meters. The investigator reportedly told Kiskis that he was turning his findings over to a line crew to have the problems repaired. William Hannon, N8PW, of Ohio confirmed to the FCC that AEP had repaired several suspect utility poles, "including one very significant noise source," Hollingsworth said. But, he added in his letter to Ryan, Hannon "continues to experience strong noise in dry weather conditions when his antenna is pointed east." Howard McCloud, KC5RGC, of Oklahoma reported power line noise last April and identified its source for AEP as utility lines about a mile from his station. McCloud was not aware that AEP had attempted to correct it, Hollingsworth wrote. "AEP now apparently maintains that the source of the noise is McCloud's antenna, even when it is disconnected and on the ground," a conclusion Hollingsworth labeled "patently defective." McCloud reports relatively strong noise on HF that continues 24/7. Hollingsworth asked AEP to "revisit each of these cases" and to update the FCC within 45 days of any progress in each case. He also referred the power company to ARRL RFI Specialist Mike Gruber, W1MG, for technical assistance in resolving the cases. ==>ARRL ANNOUNCES CONTEST RULE CHANGES The ARRL Contest Branch has announced rule changes governing ARRL-sponsored operating events. The changes become effective November 1, 2003. In any contest that requires off-time, any claimed off-time period must be at least 30 minutes long. "Remember that listening time counts as operating time when calculating off-time," said ARRL Contest Branch Manager Dan Henderson, N1ND. Second, the Northwest Territories (NWT) multiplier has been renamed "Northern Territories"--abbreviated NT--for contests that use ARRL and Radio Amateurs of Canada (RAC) sections as part of the exchange. "While not an official RAC section, the VE8, VY1 and VY0 (Northwest Territories, Yukon and Nunavut) are grouped together as a multiplier in the ARRL November Sweepstakes and the ARRL 160-Meter Contest," Henderson explained. "The new name and abbreviation will more accurately describe their makeup." Henderson said use of the NWT abbreviation was inconsistent to designate a multiplier that also included Yukon and Nunavut. Awards for ARRL-sponsored contests will continue to be issued to the VE8, VY1 and VY0 together as the Northern Territories section. Finally, in contests using geopolitical entities as multipliers--the ARRL RTTY Roundup, the ARRL International DX Contest and the ARRL 10-Meter Contest--the official abbreviation for Northwest Territories is NWT. "This change brings the multipliers for those events into a consistent form," Henderson said. ARRL encourages contest participants to update the necessary files for their logging software. For more information, contact Henderson <email@example.com>. ==>SOLAR UPDATE Solar seer Tad "Ain't No Sunshine" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington, reports: Daily sunspot numbers took a dive this week, with the average dropping 47 points from last week to 56.1. Solar flux declined by a little more than 18 points. Sunspot numbers on Tuesday and Wednesday, September 9 and 10, were quite low--43 and 42. This week, geomagnetic indices were lower. On September 7 the normally high College A index (measured in Fairbanks, Alaska) was 2, which is very quiet. We have been inside a strong solar wind this week, but the interplanetary magnetic field has been pointing north, which protects Earth's magnetic field and keeps A and K indices low. Over the weekend, expect stable geomagnetic conditions. Solar flux should rise above 100, peaking around 120 September 17-19. The fall equinox is only about 10 days away. This is a prime time for high-frequency DX, because the solar radiation reaching Earth is equal in the northern and southern hemispheres. Sunspot numbers for September 4 through 10 were 79, 57, 60, 54, 58, 43 and 42, with a mean of 56.1. 10.7 cm flux was 112.2, 108, 104.9, 107.8, 98.8, 95.9 and 99.3, with a mean of 103.8. Estimated planetary A indices were 19, 16, 12, 10, 9, 19 and 19, with a mean of 14.9. __________________________________ ==>IN BRIEF: * This weekend on the radio: The ARRL September VHF QSO Party, the North American Sprint (SSB), the FISTS Coast to Coast Contest, YLRL Howdy Days, the Worked All Europe (WAE) DX Contest (SSB), the Louisiana and Tennessee QSO parties, and the QRP ARCI End of Summer PSK31 Sprint are the weekend of September 13-14. JUST AHEAD: The ARRL 10 GHz Cumulative Contest, the SARL VHF/UHF Contest, the Scandinavian Activity Contest (CW), the Collegiate QSO Party, the South Carolina QSO Party 1300Z, the QRP Afield Contest, the Washington State Salmon Run, the Panama Anniversary Contest, the Fall QRP Homebrewer Sprint and the AGB NEMIGA Contest are the weekend of September 20-21. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <http://www.arrl.org/contests/> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar <http://www.hornucopia.com/contestcal/index.html> for more info. * ARRL Emergency Communications course registration: Registration opens Monday, September 15, 12:01 AM Eastern Daylight Time (0401 UTC), for the Level III Emergency Communications on-line course (EC-003). Registration remains open through the September 20-21 weekend or until all available seats have been filled--whichever comes first. Class begins Tuesday, September 30. Thanks to a grant from United Technologies Corp, the $45 registration fee paid upon enrollment will be reimbursed after successful completion of the Level III course. During this registration period, approximately 50 seats are being offered to ARRL members on a first-come, first-served basis. For more information, contact Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan Miller, K3UFG <firstname.lastname@example.org>; 860-594-0340. [ARECC logo] * ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration: Registration for the ARRL VHF/UHF--Life Beyond the Repeater (EC-008) <http://www.arrl.org/cce/courses.html#ec008> and the High Frequency Digital Communications (EC-005) <http://www.arrl.org/cce/courses.html#ec005> courses opens Monday, September 15, 12:01 AM EDT (0401 UTC). Registration remains open through Sunday, September 21. Classes begin Tuesday afternoon, September 23. Registration for the ARRL Antenna Modeling (EC-004) <http://www.arrl.org/cce/courses.html#ec004> course remains open through Sunday, September 21. Those interested in taking an ARRL Certification and Continuing Education (C-CE) course in the future can sign up to be advised via e-mail in advance of registration opportunities. To take advantage, send an e-mail to email@example.com. On the subject line, indicate the course name or number (eg, EC-00#) and the month you want to start the course. In the message body, provide your name, call sign, and e-mail address. Please do not send inquiries to this mailbox. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Web page <http://www.arrl.org/cce> and the C-CE links found there. For more information, contact Certification and Continuing Education Program Coordinator Howard Robins, W1HSR <firstname.lastname@example.org>. * ARRL HQ job opportunity: ARRL Field and Educational Services has an immediate, full-time opening in Newington, Connecticut, for a Certification Specialist in charge of ARRL's on-line Certification and Continuing Education (C-CE) <http://www.arrl.org/cce/> technical courses. Areas of responsibility include developing course topic ideas; finding and working with potential authors and editors on lesson content and testing standards; scheduling and managing the course development process; developing and providing management reports and statistics about the program; corresponding with students, mentors, instructors and examiners involved with the program; and overseeing the administrative aspects of the program. Starting salary depends on experience and qualifications. Candidates must hold a current Amateur Radio license. Requirements include excellent verbal and writing skills; good computer skills including experience with Access databases; excellent organizational abilities with skills in prioritizing; ability to travel; and ability to handle multiple tasks with attention to detail. Supervisory experience and experience managing and working with volunteers is highly desirable. A broad range of ham radio interests would be helpful. Forward a letter of application, resume and salary requirements to Rosalie White, K1STO, email@example.com, or c/o ARRL, 225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111. The ARRL is an equal opportunity employer. * IRTS disallows claim for first two-way transatlantic 2-meter QSO: The Irish Radio Transmitters' Society has disallowed a claim for the Brendan Trophies <http://www.irts.ie/brendan.htm>. The Brendan Trophies will be awarded to the operators of the first two Amateur Radio stations to establish two-way communication between Europe and North or South America on 2 meters. According to a report from the Radio Society of Great Britain <http://www.rsgb.org.uk/>, the IRTS Awards Panel fully considered the June 2002 application of Alexander Dutkewych, N2PIG, and Debra Dutkewych, K2PIG/VA3PIG. The applicants claimed a WSJT-mode contact March 19, 2002, between N2PIG in Newfoundland and K2PIG in County Kerry, Ireland. According to the RSGB, the Awards Panel decided that the application did not comply with the provisions of its Rule 6, which states that the Awards Panel has sole discretion in deciding on the validity of a contact. The RSGB report said the level of proof provided for the contact was insufficient. * Court kicks New York ham's "police radio" case: A New York court has dismissed a misdemeanor charge against ARRL member Richard C. "Dick" Lalone, KC5GAX, for violating §397 of that state's Vehicle and Traffic Law. That section prohibits individuals other than law officers from equipping their vehicles with radios "capable of receiving signals on the frequencies allocated for police use" without first securing a permit. The section, which also prohibits knowingly interfering with police transmissions, contains an explicit exemption for "any person who holds a valid amateur radio operator's license . . . and who operates a duly licensed portable mobile transmitter and in connection therewith a receiver or receiving set on frequencies exclusively allocated . . . to duly licensed radio amateurs." In a nearly 1300-word decision, Judge John J. Hallet said it was clear the legislature never intended the provisions of §397 from applying to licensed Amateur Radio operators, and he dismissed the charge August 5. Susan Terry, KF4SUE, a former New York assistant attorney general, represented Lalone. ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, ARRL General Counsel Chris Imlay, W3KD, and ARRL Regulatory Information Specialist John Hennessee, N1KB, provided advice or assistance to Lalone. *Grassroots effort beats the odds in Florida county: Hams living in Florida's Brevard County--which includes Melbourne, Titusville and Cape Canaveral--now are exempt from all fees and permit processes for Amateur Radio antennas. Bob Keim, W4TAT, says that in return, amateurs have agreed to adhere to accessory building setbacks when erecting antennas or antenna supports. The setback requirement does not include guy wires. Keim said a "grassroots effort" comprised mostly of amateur clubs, individual amateurs and interested county citizens got the Brevard County Commission to agree to the exemption in its ordinances. "There were those who felt Brevard would never exempt amateurs, and I am truly honored to be part of a group that proved that statement wrong," Keim said. He urged amateurs installing antenna systems to be "good neighbors" by employing "commonsense placement" and ensuring that antennas and support structures meet the highest engineering standards. Keim credited a large turnout of amateurs at the August 7 hearing where the County Commission agreed to the change. The county had agreed initially to exempt administratively all amateurs and chose to include receive-only antennas, Keim said, but amateurs worried that changes in staff could make the administrative exemption unreliable over the long haul. "For the entire amateur community to keep this ordinance, we will be dependent upon the actions of each and every amateur to respect the issue and not create a problem with the ordinance," Keim urged. ARRL South Florida Section Manager Sherri Brower, W4STB, wrote the commissioners in support of working something out with the amateurs, and Brevard County Emergency Coordinator Ray Kassis, N4LEM, spoke in support of the issue at one hearing. The biggest support, Keim said, came from the Titusville Amateur Radio Club and from members of other area clubs. Keim said the core group of supporters that showed up at every hearing "deserve the credit for this touchdown." *Vote on QST Cover Plaque Award: The winner of the QST Cover Plaque Award for August was Mike Loukides, W1JQ, for his article "A Dipole Curtain for 15 and 10 Meters." Congratulations, Mike! The winner of the QST Cover Plaque award--given to the author--or authors--of the best article in each issue--is determined by a vote of ARRL members. Voting takes place each month on the QST Cover Plaque Poll Web page <http://www.arrl.org/members-only/qstvote.html>. Cast a ballot for your favorite article in the September issue of QST. Voting ends September 30. =========================================================== The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259; <http://www.arrl.org/>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President. The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of interest to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise, and readable. Visit ARRLWeb <http://www.arrl.org/> for the latest news, updated as it happens. The ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/> offers access to news, informative features and columns. ARRL Audio News <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> is a weekly "ham radio newscast" compiled from The ARRL Letter. Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. 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