*************** The ARRL Letter Vol. 22, No. 49 December 12, 2003 *************** IN THIS EDITION: * +FEMA says BPL's benefits don't outweigh its shortcomings * +Recess offers opportunity to promote ham radio bills * +Expedition 8 commander thrills the madding crowd * +Universal Licensing System to get a new look * +German student-amateurs enjoy space chat * +Morse code to gain a new character * Solar Update * IN BRIEF: This weekend on the radio ARRL Emergency Communications course registration ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration +FCC enforcement funding will not decrease in new fiscal year UK amateur copies signal from Mars Express spacecraft Amateurs complete 82-mile two-way DSSS link on 2.4 GH New 241-GHz record claimed Robert S. Bennett, W3WCQ, SK Aeronautical mobile special event to mark 100 years of flight "Toys, Trains, Dolls!" special event set +Available on ARRL Audio News =========================================================== ==>FEMA SAYS BPL WILL "SEVERELY IMPAIR" ESSENTIAL HF OPERATIONS A proverbial monkey wrench in the works for BPL? Expressing "grave concerns" about likely interference from unlicensed Broadband over Power Line (BPL) systems, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) told the FCC that BPL could "severely impair FEMA's mission-essential HF radio operations in areas serviced by BPL technology." FEMA responded December 4 to last April's FCC BPL Notice of Inquiry, ET Docket 03-104. Now part of the Department of Homeland Security--the agency said its primary worry is BPL's potential impact on the FEMA National Radio System (FNARS) on HF. FNARS is FEMA's primary command and control backup medium under the Federal Response Plan. "FEMA has concluded that introduction of unwanted interference from the implementation of BPL technology into the high frequency radio spectrum will result in significant detriment to the operation of FEMA radio systems such as FNARS," FEMA asserted. "FNARS radio operators normally conduct communications with signals that are barely above the ambient noise levels." FNARS HF stations, FEMA said, typically are in residential areas of the sort that BPL might serve. As part of the Department of Homeland Security, FEMA's perspectives on BPL could carry substantial weight at the FCC, which may issue a Notice of Proposed Rule Making as early as February. The FCC's BPL Notice of Inquiry has attracted more than 5100 comments--many of them from the amateur community. FEMA said BPL also could render useless such "essential communications services" as the Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES), the Military Affiliate Radio System (MARS) and the Civil Air Patrol. FEMA and ARRL last year signed a Memorandum of Understanding that focuses on how Amateur Radio may coordinate with the agency in disasters and emergencies. Calling the HF spectrum "an invaluable and irreplaceable public safety resource," FEMA said there's no current alternative to HF in terms of meeting national security and emergency preparedness requirements at the national, state and local levels. The agency advised the FCC to beef up its Part 15 rules to ensure no increase in interference levels to existing FCC or NTIA-licensed communication systems. Otherwise, FEMA predicted, "any noise increase inevitably would diminish the ability to maintain essential communications" and would "directly impair the safety of life and property." Likewise, FEMA pointed out, amateur HF transmitters could possibly interfere with and interrupt BPL service, leading consumers not familiar with Part 15 to blame licensed radio services. Concluded FEMA: "The purported benefits of BPL in terms of expanded services in certain communications sectors do not appear to outweigh the benefit to the overall public of HF radio capability as presently used by government, broadcasting and public safety users." Additional information about BPL and Amateur Radio is on the ARRL Web site, www.arrl.org/tis/info/html/plc/. To support the League's efforts in this area, visit the ARRL's secure BPL Web site, https://www.arrl.org/forms/development/donations/bpl/. ==>CONGRESSIONAL RECESS PROVIDES OPPORTUNITY TO PROMOTE AMATEUR RADIO BILLS Just as the US House of Representatives was about to adjourn for the year, the Amateur Radio Spectrum Protection Act, HR 713, picked up three new cosponsors. The addition of Democrats Sander M. Levin of Michigan, Brad Sherman of California and Chris Van Hollen of Maryland brings the cosponsor list to 77. The nation's lawmakers now have headed home and won't be back in Washington until January 20. ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, suggests that League members take advantage of the opportunity--while members of Congress are on their home turf--to visit their local offices and urge support for the spectrum protection measure and for the so-called "CC&R bill," HR 1478. "It wouldn't hurt to stop by and drop off a QSL card with a message asking for support," Haynie said. "That's what it's going to take. Cards and letters from individual voters do make a difference." Judging by the number of cosponsors to date, Haynie says, the spectrum protection bill appears to be gaining the attention of lawmakers. Other recent Spectrum Protection Act cosponsors include Anibal Acevedo-Vila (D-PR), Gil Gutknecht (R-MN), Bob Filner (D-CA), Betty McCollum (D-MN) and Brian Baird (D-WA), who signed aboard during November. Identical versions of the Spectrum Protection Act have been introduced in the House and Senate. The number of cosponsors for the Senate version, S 537, remains at eight. Sponsored in the House by Rep Michael Bilirakis (R-FL) and in the Senate by Sen Michael Crapo (R-ID), the bill would require the FCC to provide "equivalent replacement spectrum" to Amateur Radio if the FCC reallocates primary amateur frequencies, reduces any secondary amateur allocations, or makes additional allocations within such bands that would substantially reduce their utility to amateurs. Meanwhile, the cosponsor count on the CC&R bill--known formally as HR 1478, the Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Consistency Act of 2003--is holding at 29. Sponsored by Rep Steve Israel (D-NY), the CC&R bill would require private land-use regulators such as homeowners' associations to "reasonably accommodate" Amateur Radio antennas consistent with the PRB-1 limited federal preemption. The ARRL is seeking a sponsor for a companion bill in the US Senate. For guidance on the best methods of contacting your members of Congress, see "Communicating with Congress," by Derek Riker, KB3JLF, on the ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/news/bandthreat/0304046.pdf> or in the April 2003 issue of QST (p 46). Additional information--including the bills' texts, sample letters and information on how to write members of Congress--is on The Amateur Radio Spectrum Protection Act of 2003 Web page <http://www.arrl.org/govrelations/arspa.html> and on the HR 1478, The Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Consistency Act of 2003 Web page <http://www.arrl.org/govrelations/hr1478/>. Those writing their lawmakers on behalf of the Spectrum Protection Act are asked to copy their correspondence to the League via e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. Those writing on behalf of the Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Consistency Act, HR 1478, are asked to copy their correspondence to email@example.com. ==>EXPEDITION 8 COMMANDER MAKES FIRST QSOS FOR ARISS ROY NEAL, K6DUE, EVENT International Space Station Expedition 8 Commander Mike Foale, KB5UAC, thrilled the madding crowd in North America and Europe December 6 as he got on the air to kick off the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) Roy Neal, K6DUE, commemorative special event. The event honors Neal, the SAREX/ARISS Working Group chairman, who died in August. "Numerous ham radio operators in these parts of the world made contact with Mike Foale or heard the ISS downlink," said ARISS International Chairman Frank Bauer, KA3HDO. "Those who heard or worked the ISS qualify for a special ISS commemorative certificate. One of those is past ARRL Roanoke Division Director and Vice President John Kanode, N4MM, who lives in Boyce, Virginia. Kanode said that after having his 2-meter radio set on the 145.800 MHz downlink all day December 6, NA1SS finally broke his squelch during the third of four suggested North American passes--around 3 PM Eastern Standard Time. "He was full quieting," said Kanode. A well-known DXer and now an ARRL Honorary Vice President, Kanode said he'd never worked any space shuttle missions with ham radio aboard or even the hams aboard the Russian Mir space station. "I had no idea I was going to work him," Kanode said. "It made my day!" Another lucky operator to QSO Foale was Randy Shriver, KG3N. In November 2000, the Hanover, Pennsylvania, ham snagged the first-ever casual contact with Expedition 1 crew commander William Shepherd, KD5GSL. At week's end, ARISS was still not sure whether Foale would be able to get on the air from NA1SS over the December 13-14 weekend. If he does, it will be for passes over Japan, Australia and New Zealand (see "NA1SS Roy Neal Event Operation Possible this Weekend for Japan, Oceania" <http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2003/12/11/3/>). A "very challenging schedule" kept the Expedition 8 crew from getting on the air November 29-30 for the Roy Neal special event. A retired broadcaster, Neal was instrumental in convincing NASA to make Amateur Radio a permanent feature on human space flights. He also helped to form the ARISS international team and moderated its gatherings. Certificate requests, accompanied by a 9x12 envelope and adequate return postage or IRCs, go to the appropriate QSL address listed on the ARISS Web site <http://www.rac.ca/ariss/>. Bauer said it could take several weeks to process certificate requests. ==>FCC ANNOUNCES UNIVERSAL LICENSING SYSTEM MAKEOVER At week's end, the FCC was preparing to put a new face on the Universal Licensing System (ULS) <http://wireless.fcc.gov/uls>, which includes the Amateur Service. The Commission was set to unveil the new on-line ULS filing interface December 14. To implement the changes, the ULS on-line filing system will be down from 12 AM EST Saturday, December 13, until 10 AM EST Sunday, December 14. Among other features, the ULS makeover will include easier-to-read on-screen forms that guide users through filing and simplify such routine tasks as applying for license renewal, address change or vanity call sign. The FCC says the introduction of its new system, called "ULS License Manager," concludes phase one of an ongoing ULS overhaul by the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau. ULS License Manager will be compatible with most, if not all, major Web browsers and computer platforms and no longer will require downloading Java and Java Script files. Screens also will be compliant with Web screen-to-voice reader software. An FCC staffer involved with implementing ULS License Manager notes that all features may not be in place when the system debuts. The ULS will require all filers to log into the system using an FCC Registration Number (FRN) and Commission Registration System (CORES) password. The FCC said it would no longer accept a Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN)--a Social Security Number for most individuals--for log-in purposes. Once the new system is up and running, all licenses and applications in the ULS database will be converted to the new ULS License Manager filing environment. There's also a new paper version of FCC Form 605, dated December 2003. One change is that Form 605 no longer requests a date of birth and will only accept an FRN and CORES password. There are no Amateur Service-related changes to any Form 605 schedules. The FCC says Amateur Service applicants may continue to use the March 2001 (or later) edition of Form 605, although it encourages use of the newest version. The new FCC Form 605 now is available via the FCC Web site <http://www.fcc.gov/Forms/Form605/605.html>. To assist with any ULS issues after the changeover, the Technical Support Hotline staff will be available Sunday, December 14, from 10 AM until 6 PM EST. Normal hours are weekdays (except holidays) from 8 AM until 6 PM Eastern Time. Technical Support is available via the FCC Web site <http://esupport.fcc.gov/> or telephone 877-480-3201 (TTY 202-414-1255). ULS licensing support and forms information is available weekdays (except holidays) from 8 AM until 5:30 PM Eastern Time via e-mail <firstname.lastname@example.org> or telephone 888-CALLFCC (225-5322), Option 2 (users also may call 717-338-2888). ==>ISS COMMANDER TALKS WITH GERMAN STUDENT-AMATEURS ISS Crew Commander Mike Foale, KB5UAC, answered questions posed December 5 by students at the Berufliches Schulzentrum Elektrotechnik (Vocational High School for Electrical Engineering) in Dresden, Germany. All seven students who spoke with Foale were Amateur Radio licensees. The QSO with NA1SS was arranged via the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) program. The students and their teacher, Thomas Hetland, DL8DXW, started preparing for the Amateur Radio exam last summer. "The goal was to participate in a radio contact with an astronaut on the ISS by using their own Amateur Radio call signs," said ARISS Mentor Peter Kofler, IN3GHZ. The students got their tickets September 27. During the 10-minute contact, the students queried Foale on topics ranging from gravity and artificial gravity to oxygen consumption and water reserves on the ISS. One student wanted to know which antenna NA1SS was using for the QSO. Another asked about the probability of the ISS being hit by a meteorite. Foale squeezed in answers to 14 question before the ISS got out of range. Before loss of signal there was just enough time for a few quick words of farewell from Hetland and a round of applause from the audience. Kofler called the contact "a big success, and a superb illustration of the educational power of the ARISS school contacts." ARISS <http://www.rac.ca/ariss> is an international educational outreach program with US participation from ARRL, NASA and AMSAT. ARISS school group contacts offer an opportunity for students to experience the excitement of Amateur Radio by talking directly with ISS crew members. ==>INTERNATIONAL MORSE CODE GETS NEW ITU HOME, NEW CHARACTER The 2003 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-03) may have eliminated the treaty requirement for prospective amateurs to demonstrate Morse code proficiency to gain HF access, but the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) hasn't forgotten Morse code altogether. In Geneva on December 5, the ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) Study Group 8 agreed on the wording of a Draft New Recommendation ITU-R M.[MORSE] that specifies the international Morse code character set and transmission procedures. It also includes a new Morse code character to cover the "@" symbol used in e-mail addresses. Once it's made available in English, French and Spanish, the draft new recommendation will go out to ITU member-states using a new procedure for simultaneous adoption and approval. On December 3, the draft new recommendation won the approval of Working Party 8A, which is responsible for the Land Mobile and Amateur services. Within the ITU, the international Morse code has been defined by the Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T), which is responsible for the public telephone and telegraph network--mostly landline. A couple of years ago, the ARRL pointed out to the US delegation to the ITU Radiocommunication Advisory Group that Morse code's role more properly resides in the radiocommunication realm, not wire, and should be the responsibility of ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R). The transfer was agreed to, and International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) President Larry Price, W4RA, proposed the draft new recommendation at the November-December Working Group 8A meeting. The draft new recommendation is almost unchanged from its ITU-T text. "No one wanted to disturb something with more than 150 years of history," said ARRL Technical Relations Manager Paul Rinaldo, W4RI. To keep up with the times, however, the IARU proposed adding a new character--the commercial "at" or @ symbol--to permit sending e-mail addresses in Morse code. The draft new recommendation proposes using the letters A and C run together (.--.-.) to represent the @ symbol. While the draft new recommendation is still a working document, its expected to become a Recommendation within six months or so, pending approval by member-states. ==>SOLAR UPDATE Ra the Sun god Tad "Seasons in the Sun" Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington, reports: Declining sunspot numbers and high geomagnetic activity made for rough conditions this week. Average daily sunspot numbers for the week dropped by 57 percent from the previous week, and average daily solar flux was down by 34 percent. Average daily planetary A index more than tripled to 28.7. Currently Earth is inside a high-speed solar wind. The interplanetary magnetic field points north, but geomagnetic conditions would be even more active if it pointed south. The wind is from a large coronal hole, and the stream began affecting Earth on December 8. No sunspots now face Earth. Solar flux is expected to stay below 100 until Tuesday, December 16, and then rise suddenly Thursday and Friday, December 18-19. Unfortunately, conditions should be rough for the ARRL 10-Meter Contest this weekend. Predicted solar flux values for Friday through Monday, December 12-15, are 85, 90, 90 and 95. Predicted planetary A index numbers for the same period are 40, 35, 25 and 20. Ten-meter paths really need a high MUF value to sustain them, and the low sunspot numbers we're seeing now don't help. Sunspot numbers for December 4 through 10 were 115, 88, 87, 53, 49, 23 and 46, with a mean of 65.9. The 10.7 cm flux was 115.8, 111.7, 108.9, 92, 93.7, 92.2 and 89.2, with a mean of 100.5. Estimated planetary A indices were 9, 43, 22, 15, 39, 31 and 42, with a mean of 28.7. __________________________________ ==>IN BRIEF: * This weekend on the radio: The ARRL 10-Meter Contest and the Great Colorado Snowshoe Run are the weekend of December 13-14. JUST AHEAD: The AGB Party Contest, the Russian 160-Meter Contest, the OK DX RTTY Contest, the Croatian CW Contest and the International Naval Contest are the weekend of December 20-21. See the ARRL Contest Page <http://www.arrl.org/contests> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar <http://www.hornucopia.com/contestcal/index.html> for more info. * ARRL Emergency Communications course registration: Registration opens Monday, December 15, 12:01 AM Eastern Daylight Time (0501 UTC), for the Level III Emergency Communications on-line course (EC-003). Registration remains open through the December 20-21 weekend or until all available seats have been filled--whichever comes first. Class begins Tuesday, December 30. Thanks to our grant sponsors--the Corporation for National and Community Service and the United Technologies Corporation--the $45 registration fee paid upon enrollment will be reimbursed after successful completion of the course. During this registration period, approximately 50 seats are being offered to ARRL members on a first-come, first-served basis. For more information, contact Emergency Communications Course Manager Dan Miller, K3UFG, email@example.com, 860-594-0340. * ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration: Registration for the ARRL HF Digital Communications (EC-005) and UHF-VHF Beyond the Repeater (EC-008) courses opens Monday, December 15, 12:01 AM Eastern Standard Time (0501 UTC). Registration will remain open through Sunday, December 22. Classes begin Tuesday December 23. Registration for the ARRL Antenna Modeling (EC-004) course remains open through Sunday, December 14. Those interested in taking an ARRL Certification and Continuing Education (C-CE) course in the future can sign up to receive advance notification of registration opportunities. To take advantage, send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org. On the subject line, indicate the course name or number (eg, EC-00#) and the month you want to start the course. In the message body, provide your name, call sign, and e-mail address. Please do not send inquiries to this mailbox. To learn more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education (C-CE) <http://www.arrl.org/cce/> Web page and the C-CE Links found there. For more information, contact Certification and Continuing Education Program Department email@example.com. * FCC enforcement funding will not decrease in new fiscal year: The omnibus budget bill that the US House of Representatives approved this week directs the FCC to maintain next fiscal year's funding for enforcement activities at least at its current level. The Congressional Record reports that a House-Senate conference agreement includes nearly $274 million for the FCC, with all but $1 million to be offset by fee collections. "The conferees direct the FCC to expend for enforcement in fiscal year 2004 an amount equal to or greater than the amount expended for enforcement in fiscal year 2003," the House Conference Report on HR 2673, the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2004 states. The US Senate will consider the budget measure in January after it returns from the holiday break. * UK amateur copies signal from Mars Express spacecraft: Using what he described as "just a quick throw-together" system, Charlie Suckling, G3WDG, this week received a signal in the UK from the European Space Agency's Mars Express <http://www.esrin.esa.int/export/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/> spacecraft. Now in deep space, Mars Express is expected to reach the Red Planet on Christmas Day and deploy its Beagle 2 lander for six months of exploration. G3WDG reports he heard the Mars Express signal on X band (8.4 GHz) December 9 using a 3-meter dish. "Signals seemed very consistent for about two hours," he said in a message to James Miller, G3RUH, who'd provided him with advice. Finding the signal, G3WDG said, took about 10 minutes of searching plus or minus 100 kHz and tweaking his azimuth and elevation settings. In mid-November, a team of German amateurs was able to copy the Mars Express signal from a far more sophisticated setup in Bochum, Germany, that's equipped with a 20 meter parabolic antenna. Reception of the Mars Express signal provided a test run for the facility, which will serve as the ground control station for AMSAT-DL's Phase P5-A Mars orbital mission planned for 2007. There's a complete report on the AMSAT-DL Web site <http://www.amsat-dl.org/p5a/p5a-bochum-eng.htm>. * Amateurs complete 82-mile two-way DSSS link on 2.4 GHz: ARRL High Speed Multimedia (HSMM) Working Group <http://www.arrl.org/hsmm/> member Ken Cuddeback, NT7K, reports that his students at Weber State University <http://classes.weber.edu/wireless/Project%20Information.htm> in Ogden, Utah, recently completed two-way direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) communication on 2.4 GHz over a distance of 82 miles. The WSU students--which include one ham, Brandon Checketts, KG4NZV, and several prospective licensees--broke the current world record of establishing a wireless link on 2.4 GHz with DSSS (using IEEE 802.11b "Wi-Fi" protocol). Cuddeback says his students used PrimeStar dishes with unamplified Cisco Aironet 350 cards--which run about 100 mW--in each laptop. "We set up a NetMeeting session and transferred a 2.5 MB mp3 file successfully," he said. ARRL HSMM Working Group Chairman John Champa, K8OCL, extended his congratulations to NT7K and his students on what he called "this fantastic accomplishment!" * New 241-GHz record claimed: Brian Justin, WA1ZMS, has bested his previous record on 241 GHz. The new claimed record is 61.8 km, which tops his previous 34.9 km claimed record of November 14. "We had some rather dry weather here in Virginia, and I just couldn't pass up trying to better our own DX record for the band," Justin said. "After shorting out a set of gel cell battery terminals while setting the gear up, I thought we'd never make the QSO!" The mishap melted a 1/4-inch plug on the cable end of the CW straight key, but it didn't prevent the contact from going forward. Operating as W2SZ/4 in FM07fm, Justin worked W4WWQ in EM97xe. There's information on Justin's other microwave accomplishments on the Mount Greylock Expeditionary Force Web site <http://www.mgef.org/>. * Robert S. Bennett, W3WCQ, SK: Bob Bennett, W3WCQ, of Baltimore, Maryland, died December 6. He was 67. Bennett was an ARRL Atlantic Division Assistant Director and, as president of the Baltimore Radio Amateur Television Society (BRATS), was well known within the Amateur TV community. "W3WCQ was our expert on ATV," said Atlantic Division Director Bernie Fuller, N3EFN. "He will be missed." Bennett also was an acknowledged expert on weak-signal VHF work and once served as the Atlantic Division representative of the now-defunct VHF-UHF Advisory Committee (VUAC). ARRL Vice President Kay Craigie, N3KN, was among Bennett's many friends. "I respected him not only for his technical knowledge and willingness to share it with others, but also for his good humor, common sense, candor, and ability to speak and write extremely well," Craigie said. "He was a valued advisor to several Atlantic Division directors, myself most definitely included." An ARRL member, Bennett also belonged to the Quarter Century Wireless Association and served as a local chapter president. A service was held December 10. * Aeronautical mobile special event to mark 100 years of flight: Special event station K1F will be on the air until December 20 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of "heavier-than-air" powered flight. "I will only be using this call sign while operating aeronautical mobile," said Ken Eckel Jr, AB5A, of Santa Fe, Texas--a professional pilot. Eckel says he's indebted to the pioneers of aviation for making the dream of flight a reality. Listen for K1F on 40, 20, 17, 15, 12 and 10 meters (SSB) as well as on 6 meters/VHF/UHF. Eckel says he'll try to be on the air for at least an hour a day, and on December 17 will be airborne at 10:30 AM EST (1530 UTC), the actual time of the first flight, on or about 14.325 MHz. QSL requests go to AB5A, 2020 Cemetery Rd, Santa Fe, TX 77517-3755. There's more information on his Web site <http://www.clarc.org/~ab5a/AB5A%20Aeromobile.html>. * "Toys, Trains, Dolls!" special event set: The Schenectady (New York) Museum Amateur Radio Association (SMARA) will operate Special Event Station W2S Sunday, December 14, 1700-2100 UTC, to commemorate the "Toys, Trains, Dolls!" exhibit at the Schenectady Museum & Planetarium. The exhibit runs through January 4. W2S operate in the General class phone segments on 80, 40 and 20 as well as on the W2IR 146.79 MHz repeater. QSL via W2IR or Schenectady Museum Amateur Radio Association, W2IR, PO Box 6143, Schenectady, NY 12306-0143.--Gerald Murray, WA2IWW =========================================================== The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259; <http://www.arrl.org/>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President. The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of interest to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise, and readable. Visit ARRLWeb <http://www.arrl.org/> for the latest news, updated as it happens. The ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/> offers access to news, informative features and columns. ARRL Audio News <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> is a weekly "ham radio newscast" compiled from The ARRL Letter. Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. 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