ARRL

ARRL Letter

 

***************
The ARRL Letter
Vol. 23, No. 08
February 20, 2004
***************

IN THIS EDITION:

* +Ham-congressman gets BPL assurances
* +2003 an up and down year for ARRL contest entries
* +NASA memorializes lost Columbia crew on Earth and Mars
* +Pending Morse "@"; symbol catches NPR's, hams' attention
* +Hawaii considering CC&R legislation
* +Nomination deadline nears for ARRL technical awards
* +Leland Smith, W5KL, SK
*  Solar Update
*  IN BRIEF:
     This weekend on the radio
     ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration
     ARRL ham radio instructor awards nominations due by March 1
     Free activity boards still available to schools
     Participation up sharply for 2003 FMT
     Expedition 9 astronaut is KE5AIT!
     Field Day 2004 packets now available
     SGC founder, president Pierre Goral, KI7UA, SK
     Vanity HQ Web site on thin ice
     Hong Kong, Denmark dropping Morse requirement

+Available on ARRL Audio News

===========================================================

==>FCC CHAIRMAN ASSURES CONGRESSMAN ON BPL STUDIES

FCC Chairman Michael Powell has assured US Representative Greg Walden,
WB7OCE, that the Commission will give "thorough consideration" to all
Broadband over Power Line (BPL) studies before it takes final action on
BPL. Powell responded February 3 to Walden's January 15 letter requesting
that the FCC defer any further action in its BPL proceeding until the
National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) releases
the results of its BPL study and the public has had a chance to comment.
On February 12 the FCC took the proceeding to the next level, unanimously
approving the issuance of a Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM). Among
other provisions, the NPRM would require BPL providers to employ "adaptive
interference-mitigation techniques."

"Please be assured that we have already begun coordination of this action
with NTIA," Powell told Walden, "and that the Commission will give all
studies, including the forthcoming NTIA study, thorough consideration
prior to any final action or rules on the subject." The FCC has not yet
released the BPL NPRM nor invited public comments. An Office of
Engineering and Technology (OET) briefing at the FCC's February 12 open
meeting indicated that the Commission would make no changes in Part 15
rules governing emissions from unlicensed devices. To date, the FCC has
released only a public notice on its BPL proposals.

Walden, a member of the House Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the
Internet, had told the FCC chairman that, in view of the importance of
avoiding interference to federal government HF communications, the FCC
should give the pending NTIA study a thorough airing before proposing any
rules to govern BPL systems. The Oregon Republican is one of two Amateur
Radio licensees in the US House.

Commenting on last April's FCC BPL Notice of Inquiry in ET Docket 03-104,
the NTIA had expressed "broad concern" about the technology's potential to
cause interference to federal government users. The NTIA said the
Commission "must ensure that other communications services, especially
government operations, are adequately protected from unacceptable
interference."

An arm of the US Department of Commerce, the NTIA subsequently undertook
evaluations of BPL field test sites, in part to gauge the technology's
interference potential. The NTIA was supposed to conclude its field work
last month, and release its observations and conclusions during the first
quarter of this year. The ARRL's own BPL study, which is assessing the
potential of interference both from and to BPL systems, also is set to
wrap up early this year.

Acting Assistant Secretary of Commerce Michael Gallagher and NTIA head
Michael Gallagher told a December meeting of BPL proponent the Power Line
Communications Association that the NTIA was "studying interference risks
and potential means for making risks more tolerable." He indicated that
the first phase of NTIA's pending BPL study would recommend radiated
emission limits, compliance measurement procedures and other conditions in
its report to the FCC.

At the FCC's February 12 open meeting, Powell pledged that the FCC would
continue to be vigilant in the area of BPL's interference potential. Anh
Wride of the OET staff, who provided the broad strokes of the pending
NPRM, said the FCC recognizes the concerns of licensed radio service users
regarding BPL's interference potential. Wride said "licensed operations
must be protected," but added that the OET staff believes that "these
interference concerns can be adequately addressed."

==>ARRL VHF, RTTY CONTEST ENTRIES UP IN A DOWN YEAR

ARRL Contest Branch Manager Dan Henderson, N1ND, reports that while 2003
saw a net decrease of 2.8 percent in log submissions for all
ARRL-sponsored operating events, the downward trend is typical in the
aftermath of a solar cycle peak. The 18,434 logs turned in during 2003
represent 539 fewer logs than in 2002, in which there was an all-time
record of ARRL contest log submissions. Henderson says HF contest log
submissions always follow the solar cycle and then start to drop off, but
he also points to the proverbial silver lining in the statistics.

"Log submissions were up for six of the events and held steady for several
others," he observed. "The largest changes really came from two events:
RTTY--experiencing a burst of popularity with the ease of interfacing
radios and computers--was up by just over 30 percent, and VHF rose overall
by 5 percent." Henderson said preliminary numbers for 2004 show another 20
percent hike in ARRL RTTY Roundup submissions.

Henderson said he was encouraged to see some rebound in VHF log
submissions--from 2179 in 2002 to 2289 in 2003--although that jump
resulted largely from better numbers for the ARRL June VHF QSO Party.
Participation was down for the January VHF Sweepstakes as well as for the
September VHF QSO Party.

The total number of "rovers" active in VHF events, at 272, was the third
highest ever, Henderson noted, and within eight logs of the all-time
record of 1993. Rover numbers were up by more than 12 percent in 2003 over
the previous year, while the percentage of rovers among contest entrants
rose slightly.

Participation in the ARRL International EME (moonbounce) Competition
increased by more than 24 percent in 2003.

Sagging propagation got the lion's share of the blame for the drop-off in
log submissions for HF events, especially the 10-meter and DX contests.
"The decline of Cycle 23 affected submissions for the ARRL 10-Meter
Contest in 2003, which was coming off a record number of submissions for
any single weekend ARRL event in 2002," he said, "while major solar
disturbances impacted the ARRL November Sweepstakes."

ARRL 10-Meter Contest submissions were off by 25.5 percent. Sweepstakes
logs for both modes were off in 2003 by 6.4 percent. Field Day entries
were up by less than one percent over 2002 numbers. Even so, Henderson
noted, "If you look back historically, the 18,000+ logs we received in
2003 is very high."

The 2003 ARRL Contest Calendar
<http://www.arrl.org/contests/calendar.html?year=2003> includes links to
results of each operating event as well as the contest soapbox.

==>NASA DEDICATES MEMORIAL, MARTIAN LANDMARKS TO SHUTTLE COLUMBIA CREW

The families of the shuttle Columbia crew lost February 1, 2003, and NASA
Administrator Sean O'Keefe this month unveiled a monument at Arlington
National Cemetery to commemorate the astronauts and their mission. The
space agency also has dedicated seven Martian hills--one named for each
lost crew member--located east of the Spirit rover landing site in honor
of the Columbia astronauts. Three of the seven Columbia crew members were
Amateur Radio licensees.

"This memorial will remind us of the dedication and sacrifice made by
those brave individuals willing to risk their own lives to further
humanity's knowledge about space exploration," O'Keefe said February 2 at
Arlington Cemetery. "Our obligation is to ensure their loss was not in
vain. We will return the space shuttle to flight as safe as humanly
possible, and we will continue to lead humanity into the unknown."

The Columbia, which broke apart while returning from a 16-day science
mission, was commanded by Rick Husband and piloted by William McCool. Also
aboard were mission specialists Kalpana "KC" Chawlna, KD5ESI; David Brown,
KC5ZTC; Laurel Clark, KC5ZSU, and Michael Anderson, and payload specialist
Ilan Ramon--a well-known Israeli Air Force pilot.

Following the mishap, Amateur Radio volunteers in Texas, Louisiana and
other states assisted in the search for shuttle Columbia debris.

The Vermont marble memorial bears two bronze plaques portraying the
Columbia's crew and the shoulder patch the astronauts wore on their
mission. It is located near the shuttle Challenger memorial. An image of
the Columbia Hills on Mars is available on the JPL/NASA Web site
<http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/mer2004/rover-images/feb-02-2004/captions/image-1
0.html>. Additional information is on the NASA Web site
<http://www.nasa.gov/columbia/home/F_04_Memorials.html>--NASA

==>NPR FEATURE SPOTLIGHTS ADDITION OF @ SYMBOL TO MORSE CODE

Some hams may have thought they'd left their transceivers turned on
Tuesday, February 17. That's when the popular National Public Radio
<http://www.npr.org/> afternoon news magazine All Things Considered ran a
piece about the pending addition of the @ symbol to the official
international Morse code lexicon. That's because NPR introduced and closed
the nearly four-minute segment with actual CW, catching the ear of many
hams.

ARRL Chief Technology Officer Paul Rinaldo, W4RI, conceived of the new
character, necessary for transmitting e-mail addresses in CW, among other
possible purposes. Assuming approval by International Telecommunication
Union <http://www.itu.int/home/index.html> member-states, the new
character--the first added to the code in many, many years--will be "AC"
run together (.--.-.).

The new character, Rinaldo says, is both unique in the Morse world as well
as a mnemonic (think of an 'a' wrapped in a 'C').

ATC co-host Robert Siegel interviewed ARRL Senior News Editor Rick
Lindquist, N1RL, for some background on the change, giving Lindquist an
opportunity to mention his passion for mobile CW operation. The short
feature, "Morse Code Enters Cyber Age," is available on the National
Public Radio Web site,
<http://www.npr.org/rundowns/segment.php?wfId=1680529>.

==>HAWAII STATE LEGISLATURE CONSIDERING CC&R BILL

A bill to aid Hawaiian amateurs living in subdivisions subject to
homeowners' association covenants, conditions and restrictions (CC&Rs) is
under consideration in the Hawaii State Legislature. Introduced January 28
by Rep Ken Hiraki (D-28) at the request of an amateur on Kauai, House Bill
2774 now is pending in the Hawaii House Committee on Consumer Protection
and Commerce, which Hiraki chairs.

The measure is similar in intent to HR 1478, now in Congress and sponsored
by Rep Steve Israel (D-NY). That proposed legislation that would apply the
limited federal preemption known as PRB-1 to CC&Rs on a nationwide basis.

The Hawaii legislative committee may schedule a hearing on the bill as
early as next week, and the ARRL plans to submit testimony in support of
HB 2774. Hiraki's office is urging hams in Hawaii to contact their
legislative representatives as well.

The bill, in general, would amend state statutes to permit Amateur Radio
licensees living in subdivisions and subject to CC&Rs to install
"antennas, conduits, chases, wires, and other telecommunications equipment
directly attached to the owner's residence or other permitted structure on
the owner's lot." The bill provides that the antenna and
telecommunications equipment installation "not directly affect any other
lot owner in the subdivision."

The text of the proposed legislation is available on the Hawaii State
Legislature Web site
<http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/sessioncurrent/bills/hb2774_.htm>.

==>ARRL TECHNICAL AWARDS NOMINATION DEADLINE LOOMS

Nominations for ARRL technical awards recognizing service, innovation and
microwave development in the technical arena are due at ARRL Headquarters
March 31. Supplemental information must arrive no later than April 15.
Nominating forms are available on the ARRL Web site.

The ARRL Technical Innovation Award goes each year to a radio amateur or
group of radio amateurs whose accomplishments are of the most exemplary
nature within the framework of technical research, development and
application of new ideas and future systems within an Amateur Radio
context. The recipient(s) receive(s) $500 in cash and an engraved plaque.

The ARRL Technical Service Award goes each year to a radio amateur or
group of radio amateurs whose service to the amateur community and/or
society at large is of the most exemplary nature within the framework of
Amateur Radio technical activities.

The ARRL Microwave Development Award goes each year to a radio amateur or
group of radio amateurs whose accomplishments and contributions are of the
most exemplary nature within the framework of microwave development (ie,
research and application of new and refined uses and activity in the
amateur microwave bands).

The recipient(s) The ARRL Technical Innovation and Microwave Development
awards receive(s) an engraved plaque and may request up to $100 in ARRL
publications.

Any ARRL member may place a nomination for any of these awards. Supporting
documentation should not exceed 10 pages. For links to on-line nomination
forms and for more information, visit the ARRL Technical Awards Web page
<http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/instructor/instructor/awards.html>.

==>LELAND W. SMITH, W5KL, SK

Leland W. Smith, W5KL, of Harrison, Arkansas, died February 15. He turned
90 earlier this month. An ARRL member, Smith was president emeritus of the
Quarter Century Wireless Association (QCWA) <http://www.qcwa.org/> and the
sitting president of the Old Old Timer's Club (OOTC). Smith had held a
number of ARRL section-level appointments that included service as Section
Communications Manager (SCM, now SM) in Georgia and Alabama prior to World
War II. He was a former member of the Radio Club of America board.

ARRL First Vice President Joel Harrison, W5ZN, recalls meeting Smith while
a teenager growing up in Little Rock in the early 1970s. "When I became
Arkansas Section Manager in 1983, Leland was one of the first League
members to contact me and offer any assistance or advice," he said. When
Harrison became Delta Division Director, Smith became an assistant
director and advisor. "His service to ARRL and Amateur Radio was
respectable and commendable," Harrison said, calling Smith "an example all
radio amateurs should strive to follow."

An amateur since 1930, Smith was highly regarded for his CW ability and
powerfully efficient station. "He was the epitome of a good CW operator,
as well as a good person," said Arkansas SM Dennis Schaefer, W5RZ. During
his tenure with the Depression-era Civilian Conservation Corps, Smith once
wrote that he was "able to continue my hobby as a radio amateur with
low-power homemade equipment from my tent."

While serving as a Marine second lieutenant in the Pacific during World
War II, Smith won a Bronze Star for bravery under fire and for maintaining
vital communication during combat. He also collected three battle stars.
Smith also put his electronics skills to use by helping to cobble together
a 50 W radio station from spare parts to entertain the troops. Smith
served during the Korean Conflict and later worked for the Veterans
Administration and the Centers for Disease Control. In 1966, he became one
of only five reserve general officers, attaining the rank of brigadier
general.

Over the years, Smith also held W4AGI, W4YE, W4BEA, W4PCS, W3JJO and K6CN.
One son, Buddy, now holds W4YE, while another, Kay, holds W4AGI. Memorial
services were held February 20 in Harrison.

==>SOLAR UPDATE

Solar sage Tad "I Live for the Sun " Cook, K7RA, Seattle, Washington,
reports: Average daily sunspot numbers were down a little from a week
earlier, as were the daily solar flux numbers. Average daily planetary A
index was slightly higher. Geomagnetic indices settled down February 16-19
to yield some nice HF conditions. There weren't many sunspots, so the MUF
wasn't as high as it was, say, several years ago, but the quiet conditions
are a welcome respite from the stormy geomagnetic conditions of late.

The quiet conditions should continue though this weekend--good news for
those participating in the ARRL International DX Contest (CW). Predicted
planetary A index for Friday through Monday, February 20-23, is 10, 10, 12
and 12. Solar flux is expected to stay below 100 until around Leap Year
Day, February 29.

Sunspot numbers for February 12 through 18 were 65, 71, 64, 75, 81, 22 and
23, with a mean of 57.3. The 10.7 cm flux was 112.2, 107.8, 103.7, 102.1,
98.7, 101.9 and 97.7, with a mean of 103.4. Estimated planetary A indices
were 28, 21, 18, 18, 7, 5 and 8, with a mean of 15.

__________________________________

==>IN BRIEF:

* This weekend on the radio: The ARRL International DX Contest (CW), the
YL-ISSB QSO Party (CW) and the CQC Winter QSO Party are the weekend of
February 21-22. JUST AHEAD: The CQ 160-Meter Contest (SSB), the REF
Contest (SSB), the UBA DX Contest (CW), the Mississippi QSO Party, the
CZEBRIS Contest, the North American QSO Party (RTTY), the High Speed Club
CW Contest and the North Carolina QSO Party are the weekend of February
28-29. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <http://www.arrl.org/contests/>
and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar
<http://www.hornucopia.com/contestcal/index.html> for more info.

* ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration:
Registration for the ARRL RFI (EC-006) and ARRL Antenna Design and
Construction (EC-009) courses opens Monday, February 23, 12:01 AM Eastern
Time (0501 UTC). Registration remains open through Sunday, March 1.
Classes begin Tuesday March 9. Those interested in taking an ARRL
Certification and Continuing Education (C-CE) course in the future can
sign up to receive advance notification of registration opportunities. To
take advantage, send an e-mail to prereg@arrl.org. On the subject line,
indicate the course name or number (eg, EC-00#) and the month you want to
start the course. In the message body, provide your name, call sign, and
e-mail address. Please do not send inquiries to this mailbox. To learn
more, visit the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education (C-CE)
<http://www.arrl.org/cce/> Web page. For more information, contact
Certification and Continuing Education Program Department <cce@arrl.org>;.

* ARRL ham radio instructor awards nominations due by March 1: The
deadline is March 1 to submit nominations for The ARRL Herb S. Brier
Instructor of the Year Award and the ARRL Professional Educator Award. The
Brief Award <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/award/herb-tor.html> goes to a
volunteer Amateur Radio instructor, while the Professional Educator Award
<http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/award/pey-tor.html> is presented to a
teacher who uses Amateur Radio as part of the curriculum or after-school
program, or teaches it in an educational institution. These awards are
aimed at honoring amateurs who put in countless volunteer hours to seek
out newcomers and teach them the standards and practices of Amateur Radio.
Nominating forms for the Brier Award
<http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/edunom.html?aw_id=7> and the Professional
Educator award <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/edunom.html?aw_id=9> are
available on the ARRL Web site. All nominees will be invited to confirm
their interest in competing for the award and to submit material
documenting their activities. Winners receive engraved plaques and up to
$100 worth of ARRL publications.

* Free activity boards still available to schools: ARRL Amateur Radio
Education & Technology Program (ETP) Coordinator Mark Spencer, WA8SME,
says his program still has a number of "activity board" suites available
for schools on a first-come, first served basis. Described in Unit 9 of
The ETP curriculum
<http://www.arrl.org/FandES/tbp/Curriculum-Materials.html>, the activity
board provides teachers with a ready, reliable set of component blocks
that can be used in platform instruction to cover the five basic building
blocks of virtually all wireless technology: oscillators, rectifiers,
amplifiers, mixers and filters. The activity board kit includes the board,
components, and instruction manual. It's designed for construction by
middle schoolers--with knowledgeable adult supervision--using basic tools
(soldering iron and wire clippers). Valued at approximately $350, the
suite includes the circuit board and components, three volt-ohm meters and
a digital oscilloscope. For more details on requesting the suites, see
"ARRL Education and Technology Program Activity Boards Still Available"
<http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2004/02/12/3/> or contact Mark Spencer,
WA8SME, <mspencer@arrl.org>;; 860-594-0396.

* Participation up sharply for 2003 FMT: Participation in the 2003 ARRL
Frequency Measuring Test (FMT) last November 19 was up by 57 percent over
2002, reports W1AW Station Manager Joe Carcia, NJ1Q. Carcia also noted an
increase in error rates over the previous FMT. The test exercises the
capability of hams to measure an important operating
parameter--frequency--and to improve their understanding of their radios.
The error rates, in parts per million, ranged anywhere from +1084 to -482
ppm, taking into account all four bands on which the test was run. Carcia
cites the number of first-time FMT participants as the likely reason for
the rise in the error rate. Test submissions came from 213 hams and one
shortwave listener. W1AW carried out the test on 80, 40, 20 and 15 meters.
The exact frequencies were 3,585,383.7 Hz; 7,050,409.9 Hz; 14,050,075.7 Hz
and 21,053,399.1 Hz. Complete FMT results are available on W1AW's FMT page
<http://www.arrl.org/w1aw/fmt/>. The next FMT likely will take place late
this year. Carcia says a number of hams suggested a "West Coast Run" of
the next FMT, given current propagation in the declining solar cycle.

* Expedition 9 astronaut is KE5AIT! Astronaut Mike Fincke, who will be one
of the two International Space Station Expedition 9 crew members, now has
his new call sign, KE5AIT. Fincke passed his Technician examination
February 12 and had his new call sign less than a week later--in plenty of
time for his ISS tour of duty that begins in mid-April. Fincke, 36, and
cosmonaut and crew commander Gennady Padalka, RN3DT, 45, will heads for
the ISS April 18 aboard a Russian Soyuz vehicle. Fincke will be the NASA
ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition 9. Fincke and
Padalka have been training together as a space station crew for nearly two
years, and NASA cited their experience as a team as a primary reason for
its sudden change-of-heart to have Padalka and Fincke replace Leroy Chiao
and cosmonaut Valery Tokarev as the next crew. Having an US Amateur Radio
licensee aboard is necessary if the Amateur Radio on the International
Space Station--or ARISS--program is to continue its schedule of school
group contacts via NA1SS.

* Field Day 2004 packets now available: Rules and entry packets for the
2004 running of ARRL Field Day now are available on the League's Web site
<http://www.arrl.org/contests/forms/>. Field Day is always the fourth full
weekend of June--this year June 26-27. The activity begins at 1800 UTC
Saturday and ends at 2100 UTC Sunday. There are no rules changes from
2003. Participation in Field Day now is open to all amateurs within IARU
Region 2--the Americas. FD stations may contact stations in other regions
for point credit, but stations outside Region 2 are not eligible to submit
entries.

* SGC founder, president Pierre Goral, KI7UA, SK: The man who co-founded
and headed radio manufacturer SGC Inc--Pierre Goral, KI7UA (ex-N7VRJ), of
Kirkland, Washington--died February 12. He was 67. Goral, who established
SGC in 1971 with the late Don Stoner, W6TNS (the company originally was
called Stoner-Goral Communications, later shortened to SGC), was "an
internationally recognized designer, entrepreneur and leader in the field
of RF engineering," the company said this week in announcing his death.
"He led an adventurous life, working in the jungles of Brazil as a young
engineer and traveling the world to represent his company," SGC said. "RF
engineering was his passion, and he devoted himself and his company to
producing only the very finest, professional HF SSB products." Outside of
his professional life, SGC said, Goral was an artist, photographer, skier
and snowboarder who "demonstrated an appreciation of life in everything he
did." SGC is a manufacturer of both commercial and amateur gear.
Condolences may be sent care of SGC Inc, 13737 SE 26 St, Bellevue, WA
98005 or via e-mail to sgc@sgcworld.com.

* Vanity HQ Web site on thin ice: The proprietor of the popular Vanity HQ
Web site <http://www.vanityhq.com/>, Michael Carroll, N4MC, says the site's
future viability is hanging by a thread. "Vanity HQ has been on life
support these past two years since I lost my job," Carroll said in a
February12 posting. "Unfortunately, it has become necessary to pull the
plug on the daily updates and eventually, the site itself." At this point,
Carroll says, the site will remain up until mid-March while he relocates
and mulls his personal situation, but he says not to look for any updates
at least for the next couple of weeks.

* Hong Kong, Denmark dropping Morse requirement: Hong Kong and Denmark
have become the latest countries to announce they will drop the
requirement for Amateur Radio applicants to pass a Morse code examination
for access to frequencies below 30 MHz. In conjunction with its
announcement, Hong Kong will cancel all existing amateur station license
classes (and/or authority to operate), replacing them with a new
authorization that does not carry a license class, the Office of the
Telecommunications Authority (OFTA) announced February 11. OFTA also
opened the 430 to 440 MHz band for portable and mobile operation and
allocated 10.45 to 10.5 GHz to the Amateur Service. OFTA said only that
the changes would "come into effect soon." The Danish Information
Technology and Telecom Agency, meanwhile, has announced the elimination of
the Morse code examination for access to Amateur Radio HF bands, effective
February 1.

===========================================================
The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American
Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main
St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259;
<http://www.arrl.org/>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President.

The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of
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3. Check the Read All Messages In Plain Text box.  When you open the e-mail, it will be in plain text without images. Other e-mail programs may be able to make a Mail Rule for e-mail received from the address memberlist@www.arrl.org so that the plain-text-only display is selected automatically.

Outlook 2007

Use the same procedure as for Outlook Express, although the global option is under "Tools/Trust Center/E-mail Security".

Thunderbird

Use the menu item "View/Message Body As/Plain Text" or "View/Message Source" options.

OS X Mail (Mac)

Use the "View/Message/Plain Text Alternative" menu item.

GMail

Use the "Message text garbled?" link in the drop-down menu at the upper right of the displayed message block. pine, alpine Set "prefer-plain-text" in your ~/.pinerc configuration file: feature-list=..., prefer-plain-text, ...