*************** The ARRL Letter Vol. 24, No. 03 January 21, 2005 *************** IN THIS EDITION: * +FCC chairman says he's quitting * +PRB-1 plus volunteers make the difference in getting tower permits * +Astronaut talks via ham radio with his primary school alma mater * +Nevada ARES volunteers report for flood duty * +Consensus reported in Canada on Morse code requirement * +League congratulates 100-year-old life member * Solar Update * IN BRIEF: This weekend on the radio ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration +Project OSCAR issues call for West Coast Symposium papers +Echo satellite reopens for normal FM repeater, digital use Alpha/Power again in new hands George S. Van Dyke Jr, W3HK, SK Francis Theodore Blatt, KH6KH, SK William Troetschel, W7LVO, SK +Available on ARRL Audio News =========================================================== ==>FCC CHAIRMAN MICHAEL K. POWELL ANNOUNCES HIS RESIGNATION FCC Chairman Michael K. Powell announced today that he'll step down, effective "sometime in March." Powell's resignation comes just one day after President George W. Bush's inauguration for a second term in the White House. Nominated by former President Bill Clinton, Powell--whose father is Secretary of State Colin Powell--joined the FCC in 1997. He became its chairman two days after President Bush was sworn in for his first term in 2001. ARRL CEO David Sumner, K1ZZ, called Powell's performance "a deep disappointment" after some initial optimism. While the League is not unhappy about Powell's departure--especially given his unabashed cheerleading on behalf of the FCC's broadband over power line (BPL) initiative--there's also concern about whom President Bush might call upon to replace him. "It's no secret that we thought Chairman Powell was going entirely in the wrong direction on BPL and dragging the other commissioners and FCC staff along--willing or not--because he was, after all, the chairman," Sumner said. "A new chairman might be a chance for a fresh start." Last October when the FCC adopted new Part 15 rules for BPL, Powell called it "a banner day." While conceding that BPL will affect some spectrum users, including "all those wonderful Amateur Radio operators out there," the chairman implied that the FCC must balance the benefits of BPL against the relative value of other licensed services. Powell listed the Commission's adoption of BPL rules among the "policy highlights" of his tenure. "Broadband to power plugs would lower prices, expand deployment," the chairman's list of accomplishments asserts. Possibilities to replace Powell include the other Republican members of the five-member FCC--Kathleen Q. Abernathy, a staunch BPL supporter, and Kevin J. Martin. Speculation also has been raised about various candidates outside the commissioners. "We look forward to the opportunity to work with the new chairman, whoever that may be," Sumner said. Powell, in his announcement, said it was "with a mixture of pride and regret" that he informed the president of his decision to step down. "Having completed a bold and aggressive agenda, it is time for me to pursue other opportunities and let someone else take the reins of the agency," he said. "During my tenure, we worked to get the law right in order to stimulate innovative technology that puts more power in the hands of the American people, giving them greater choices that enrich their lives." The chairman said the seeds of the Commission's policies under his leadership "are taking firm root in the marketplace and are starting to blossom." He cited the increased use of cell phones, digital TV and other digital technology "increasingly connected anytime, anywhere by a wide variety of broadband networks." "Our children will inherit this exciting future," Powell proclaimed, adding that he looks forward to spending some time with his wife and two sons "before taking up my next challenge." As FCC chairman, Powell also has been in the forefront of enforcing the Commission's rules on indecency, largely through imposing huge fines on violators. He also supported changes in media ownership rules that permitted even greater concentration in the ownership of broadcasting outlets. Powell's formal resignation announcement followed widespread reports in the media that he would be leaving. Communications Daily said the chairman's last day would be March 10. ==>ARRL VOLUNTEERS, PRB-1 HELP MIDWESTERN AMATEURS GET TOWER PERMITS Two Midwestern radio amateurs have succeeded in their efforts to be allowed to erect antenna support structures on their residential properties. Both cases hinged largely on the requirement of the limited federal preemption known as PRB-1 that localities "reasonably accommodate" Amateur Radio communication with "minimum practicable regulation." As a result, city officials in Wheaton, Illinois, have granted John Siepmann, N9NA, a permit to build a 42-foot tower in his back yard. And in Ohio, Brian "Tim" McGraw, W8BTM, got the okay from the Colerain Township Board of Zoning Appeals (BZA) to erect a 48-foot tower on his property. "It all started with Hank Greeb, N8XX, who organized the ham radio community, researched the applicable laws and fully utilized all ARRL resources all toward achieving this victory," Ohio Section Manager Joe Phillips, K8QOE, said of the W8BTM case. "More than anything else, it was Hank's single commitment to see this through that made this a win for ham radio." Greeb serves as an ARRL Volunteer Consulting Engineer in the Great Lakes Division. More than two dozen neighbors had signed a petition and presented their opposition at the hearing in early December. Thirty radio amateurs showed up for the session, and many spoke in support of McGraw's application, however. In addition, ARRL Great Lakes Division Director Jim Weaver, K8JE, supplied applicable case law for the hearing, while Ohio Assistant SM Bob Winston, W2THU, offered legal advice. Professional engineer Herb Nichols, W8HRN, twice testified to the technical aspects of McGraw's plans, Phillips said. The BZA's December 15 decision was unanimous. Greeb said the township's lawyer advised that the BZA was not the proper forum to consider McGraw's application and that guidance must come instead from the trustees. He suggested that the trustees need to develop guidelines regarding permissible structure heights for future applications. None exist in the Rural Zoning Commission's regulations, which provide the basis for Colerain Township's zoning regulations. "While it is a bit unclear as to how the township will proceed," Greeb commented, "we look forward to working with its elected officials and its designees to set guidance in the new zoning regulations, which are currently under consideration by the township." In Illinois, Siepmann's application for a 65-foot free-standing structure faced opposition from his neighbors, who apparently feared that the presence of the antenna support structure would lower property values and lead to TV and telephone interference. "This permit was issued in spite of a 100-plus neighbor signature 12-point petition to the city not to allow the tower, as well as the erection of approximately 75 neighbor lawn signs with 'NO RADIO TOWER' emblazoned across their faces," Siepmann told ARRL. "The signs were placed on lawns as far away as one mile from our home, which is in a quiet, mature and leafy subdivision in Wheaton." Representing Siepmann was ARRL Volunteer Counsel and well-known Amateur Radio antenna advocate Jim O'Connell, W9WU. News reports say City Attorney Jim Knippen told city council members December 6 that because of PRB-1, Wheaton would lose any court case and had no choice but to issue Siepmann a permit for a tower. The city compromised on its height, however. O'Connell says the city came up with 42 feet by adding Wheaton's present 12-foot "Over the Air Television Receiving Dish" (OTARD) antenna height limit to its 30-foot height limit for a single-family dwelling. O'Connell says a number of short towers already are in place in Wheaton, and the city even had a 65-foot antenna tower ordinance until several years ago, when it "simply disappeared one day." ==>ISS COMMANDER RETURNS TO HIS ELEMENTARY SCHOOL VIA AMATEUR RADIO International Space Station Expedition 10 Commander Leroy Chiao, KE5BRW, visited via Amateur Radio January 13 with fourth and fifth graders at John Baldwin Elementary School in Danville, California. That's the same school Chiao attended more than 30 years ago when he was growing up. "We just looked him up in the yearbook and found his picture, and there he was, smiling away," said John Baldwin fourth-grade teacher Starr Dawson, who coordinated the contact at the school. Dawson said 17 pupils who proposed questions to ask the ISS commander were chosen to participate in the event, which was arranged by the Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) program. Chiao answered 11 of them. Responding to one youngster's inquiry, he said the Apollo missions inspired him to become an astronaut. "I first really knew I wanted to become an astronaut when I was eight years old attending John Baldwin School there and watching the first Apollo moon landings," he recalled, "and from that point on, I knew that that was what I wanted to do." Of all his space missions, his current tour aboard the ISS has been his "most unforgettable." Replying to another question, Chiao allowed for the possibility of life forms other than human elsewhere in the universe. "I believe, personally, that there is other life in the universe, and I think that it's just that we haven't found it yet--or they haven't found us," Chiao told the youngsters. "You know, we haven't had any confirmed life on other planets, but some of the results coming back from the Mars probes is showing some promise that there was water, and of course if it looks like there was water on the surface of Mars in the past that opens up the possibility that there may have been life there." Chiao also said that he and crewmate Salizhan Sharipov were working on an ultrasound "Telemed" experiment. It's aimed at coming up with a system that would permit physicians on Earth to diagnose health problems space travelers may experience during long-duration space flights, such as those required to journey to Mars and beyond, he explained. Handling Earth station duties for the event was ARISS veteran Tony Hutchison, VK5ZAI, in Australia, who contacted NA1SS directly. An MCI-donated teleconference link handled two-way audio between Australia and the school. Audio of the contact also was distributed via EchoLink and IRLP. The QSO with John Baldwin Elementary School marked the 160th ARISS school group contact. ARISS is an educational outreach program with US participation by ARRL, AMSAT and NASA. ==>ARES SUPPORTS NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE, RED CROSS IN FLOODING'S WAKE The same weather system that caused flooding and mudslides in California wreaked havoc elsewhere in the western US the week of January 10. Heavy rainfall in the southeastern Nevada region bordering Utah and Arizona combined with runoff from melting snow, causing rivers and streams to overrun their banks. The resulting flooding damaged or destroyed dozens of homes in the area northeast of Las Vegas. Early on in the emergency, the National Weather Service (NWS) contacted Clark County, Nevada, Emergency Coordinator Charlie Kunz, AA5QJ, to request help from his team. "They had lost a level detector on the Muddy River near Glendale and asked if someone could get them reports," said Vern Garman, K0EGA, the Clark County ARES Assistant EC for Operations and Training. Starting January 10, radio amateurs from the Logandale/Overton area provided information to the NWS for the next three days. In addition, Garman reports, the Clark County Office of Emergency Management activated the emergency operations center (EOC) on January 11, and ARES deployed a volunteer to the EOC for about one day. After flooding displaced some area residents, the American Red Cross opened a shelter in Overton, and Logandale/Overton-area ARES volunteers provided communication support. At least five ARES members also aided the Red Cross in preliminary damage assessment activities. On January 15, the Red Cross requested ARES support in Mesquite, and six amateurs from Las Vegas and one from Overton responded. "This group assisted in setting up the Red Cross communications van and provided communications for outreach teams searching for the people who needed Red Cross assistance," Garman explained. The outreach activity was centered in the northeastern corner of Arizona, near Littlefield and Beaver Dam, he said. A road washout cut off access to Beaver Dam, and some two dozen homes were damaged or destroyed. Southern Nevada District Emergency Coordinator Glenn Hale, KB7REO, said communications support to the Red Cross consisted of installing an antenna on the mobile communications vehicle and programming the Icom IC-706MKIIG transceiver aboard for area repeaters. Hale noted that the Red Cross emergency response vehicles (ERVs) primarily use the 30-50 MHz Public Safety band to communicate to their command post. Garman said one of the responders, Jack Cook, N8RRL, had Red Cross communication support training and had operated one in Florida after last year's hurricanes. Two vehicles owned by Red Cross personnel served as secondary ERVs, Hale said, and he and Dan Starr, AA7I, supported that effort in Littlefield by shadowing the group with HF/VHF communication. Most activity was within the Virgin River Gorge, and nearly all communication to the command post was via the Utah Hill 146.820 repeater. "Bridges to the community were completely washed out making access to the community difficult," Hale reported. "The St George, Utah, American Red Cross kitchen was supplying food to the ERVs. At one location in Beaver Dam, 55 meals were served." Hale said some homes in the region around Littlefield and just across the border in Mesquite were damaged or destroyed by floodwaters and mud. Conventional telephone and some cellular service in the area was out completely, and the Red Cross used a satellite uplink to communicate with its national headquarters from the communications van. Garman says the support for the Red Cross wrapped up when the organization completed its outreach program on January 16. In all, more than a dozen ARES volunteers responded to the weather emergency. ==>INDUSTRY CANADA REPORTS "OVERWHELMING AGREEMENT" TO DROP MORSE Radio Amateurs of Canada (RAC) reports that an Industry Canada (IC) analysis has found "overwhelming agreement" that Canada should move away from retaining a Morse code requirement as "the sole means of gaining access" to the HF amateur bands. IC has posted a summary of comments from the amateur community to RAC's Recommendations from Radio Amateurs of Canada to Industry Canada concerning Morse Code and Related Matters. "Amateurs should note that while the responses heavily favored deletion of the Morse Qualification as a requirement for access to the HF bands, Industry Canada still has to make and announce a decision on Morse retention or deletion," RAC emphasized. IC reported 123 comments in favor of relaxing the code requirement in Canada and only 19 "clearly opposed." Another six comments were inconclusive. The regulatory agency also has attempted to gauge the level of support for each of RAC's 12 license restructuring recommendations. IC said it would formulate a plan to implement changes emerging from the consultation process. RAC notes that until IC announces a decision to delete Morse, Canadian amateurs not holding the Morse Qualification may not operate on the HF bands. The Industry Canada comment summary is on IC's Web site <http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/insmt-gst.nsf/en/sf08280e.html> Here in the US, the FCC has made no recommendation or decision regarding the future of the current 5 WPM (Element 1) Morse requirement for HF access. It's also reviewing several petitions, including one from the ARRL, that propose further Amateur Radio license restructuring. ==>ARRL PRESIDENT CONGRATULATES CENTENARIAN LIFE MEMBER W3DHL ARRL President Jim Haynie, W5JBP, has congratulated ARRL Life Member Zeke Dorsey, W3DHL, of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who turned 100 January 15. Writing on behalf of the League's Board of Directors, officers and staff, Haynie wished Dorsey "the very best on reaching this milestone." The ARRL President also thanked W3DHL for his loyal support of the League as a Life Member and Volunteer Examiner as well as for being an AMSAT supporter. "We deeply appreciate your keen interest in radio electronics and your service to welcoming new hams into Amateur Radio as a Volunteer Examiner," Haynie said. "You have seen decades of progress and change in our service and added your personal achievements to the pride we all feel in our service. Thank you for your years of dedication." Friend Brian Roberts, K9VKY, alerted the League to Dorsey's 100th birthday. He tells ARRL that Dorsey's life has been--and continues to be--a full one. Dorsey got his start in Amateur Radio while still a teenager attending Duquesne University in 1921, Roberts recounts. "Zeke has seen a lot of things come and go over the years," he says. According to Roberts, Dorsey--a Sewickley, Pennsylvania, native--cobbled together his first spark gap transmitter from a Ford spark coil, powering it from homemade glass jar batteries. A galena detector was his receiving set. He subsequently upgraded to a 1 kW rotary spark transmitter and a regenerative receiver, and, not incidentally, got his license, 8DHL, in 1922. Owing to regulatory changes, he later became W3DHL. "Zeke's interest in Amateur Radio flourished along with radio development in the 1920s," Roberts says. Dorsey also developed an interest in aviation and got his pilot's license. When World War II broke out, he enlisted in the US Army Air Corps "at the rather advanced age of 37," Roberts notes. "Because of his specialized knowledge in aviation and radio, Uncle Sam waived Zeke's basic training and immediately sent him overseas to India to set up radio navigation aids and homing devices in the China-Burma-India theater of operations," he says. "As the war progressed, Zeke later served in the Pacific theater, setting up and servicing radio beacons for the air forces." Over time, Dorsey let his Amateur Radio license lapse. When he wanted to return to his Amateur Radio roots, however, he discovered that his original W8DHL and later W3DHL call signs had been reissued and no longer were available. But when W3DHL became available again, he was able to reclaim it, thanks to help from the Quarter Century Wireless Association (QCWA) and a 1920s callbook. Roberts says Dorsey remains quite energetic, still driving his own car, mowing the lawn, shoveling snow and maintaining an electronics repair shop. The Amateur Extra-class licensee also is still on the air. "Zeke continues to enjoy Amateur Radio and keeps a weekly schedule with longtime friend Bob Ross, KA3AVB," reports Roberts. "Zeke Dorsey is a true gentleman, who passes a remarkable milestone in personal achievement as well as 80-plus years in Amateur Radio." ==>SOLAR UPDATE Solar flash Tad "Tequila Sunrise" Cook,K7RA, Seattle, Washington, reports: This has been a very active week for solar flares and geomagnetic storms. The average daily sunspot number rose more than 57 points this week to 89, and the average daily solar flux was up nearly 43 points to 132.7, as compared to the previous reporting week. The average daily planetary A index more than doubled--from 17.9 to 36.6. Huge sunspot 720 provided lots of excitement over the past week. Two large flares (coronal mass ejections or CMEs) erupted from this sunspot on January 15. Over the next few days the geomagnetic numbers bumped up dramatically, with planetary A indices of 63, 72 and 62 for January 17-19. The high-latitude collage A indices for the same three days were 114, 136 and 106. On Monday, January 17, another big flare blasted in our direction. It peaked around 0950 UTC. As sunspot 720 moves off the center of the visible solar disk, more flares erupted, including a huge X7-class event on Thursday, January 20. The energy could sweep past Earth today, January 21. This flare was the largest of any during the past year, and it triggered the largest radiation storm in the current 11-year solar cycle. The current prediction is for a planetary A index of 25, 20 and 20 for January 21-23, but these numbers could be higher depending on how direct the radiation hits Earth. With sunspot 720 moving beyond view, daily solar flux values are expected to dip below 100 around January 23-24. Sunspot numbers for January 13 through 19 were 77, 65, 100, 99, 107, 109 and 66, with a mean of 89. The 10.7 cm flux was 115.6, 129.8, 144.9, 144.5, 137.5, 124.3 and 132.5, with a mean of 132.7. Estimated planetary A indices were 13, 12, 22, 12, 63, 72 and 62 with a mean of 36.6. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 10, 11, 11, 10, 27, 35 and 31, with a mean of 19.3. __________________________________ ==>IN BRIEF: * This weekend on the radio: The ARRL January VHF Sweepstakes and the BARTG RTTY Sprint are the weekend of January 22-23. JUST AHEAD: The CQ 160-Meter Contest (CW), the REF Contest (CW), the UK DX Contest (RTTY) and the UBA DX Contest (SSB) are the weekend of January 29-30. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <http://www.arrl.org/contests/> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar <http://www.hornucopia.com/contestcal/index.html> for more info. * ARRL Certification and Continuing Education course registration: Registration for the ARRL HF Digital Communication (EC-005) and ARRL VHF/UHF--Beyond the Repeater (EC-008) courses remains open through Sunday, January 23. Classes begin Friday February 4. Students participating in VHF/UHF--Beyond the Repeater will enjoy exploring some of the lesser-used and more intriguing aspects of VHF/UHF operation. HF Digital Communication students will learn to use a variety of HF digital modes. To learn more, visit the <http://www.arrl.org/cce/> Web page or contact the ARRL Certification and Continuing Education Department <firstname.lastname@example.org>. * Project OSCAR issues call for West Coast Symposium papers: Project OSCAR has issued a call for papers for its 2005 West Coast Space Symposium. Held in partnership with the College of San Mateo Electronics Department, the symposium is devoted to a broad range of topics ranging from current satellite construction projects to satellite operations and general technical discussions. The symposium takes place Saturday, May 7, at the College of San Mateo in San Mateo, California. Symposium registration, with refreshments, starts at 8 AM. Presentations begin promptly at 9 AM and run through 5:30 PM. Registration is $15 ($8 for students), which includes lunch and parking. There will be room at the campus facility to erect antennas for live demonstrations. For suggested presentation topics and more information, visit the Symposium Web site <http://www.projectoscar.net/2005_symposium.php>. * Echo satellite reopens for normal FM repeater, digital use: The Echo (AO-51) command team says that because no tsunami relief-related emergency message traffic has been seen on the AO-51 Packsat Broadcast Protocol BBS (PBBS), it's configured the satellite to permit normal FM repeater and 9k6 digital operation. "The plan is to run in this mode until the end of January, unless word is received from the disaster area that a different setup would be useful," said the AO-51 command team's Mike Kingery, KE4AZN. Because the switch to solely digital store-and-forward operation pre-empted the satellite's use in FM repeater mode for Kid's Day January 2, AMSAT now plans to reschedule its Kid's Day activity on the satellite for an as-yet-unannounced Saturday in February. The AO-51 FM voice uplink is 145.920 MHz (with 67 Hz CTCSS tone required); downlink is 435.300 MHz. The 9k6 digital PBBS uplink is 145.860 MHz FM; downlink is 435.150 MHz FM.--AMSAT News Service * Alpha/Power again in new hands: Alpha Radio Products LLC has announced an agreement with CrossLink Inc and Alpha/Power Inc to take over production and support of the Alpha/Power line of linear amplifiers and related products. A January 20 Alpha Radio Products press release says Alpha/Power will return to its roots and dedicate itself solely to providing high-power RF equipment "for the professional and serious amateur markets." CrossLink acquired the linear amplifier manufacturer in late 2000. Alpha Radio cited "declining business prospects for CrossLink" for making the ownership change necessary. Alpha Radio President Molly Hardman, W0MOM, assured all current Alpha amplifiers owners that their warranty and service needs will be met. The company says it will continue to employ "the same excellent technicians and assemblers" and manufacture and service its products in the current Boulder, Colorado, location. Chief Engineer Gordon Hardman, W0RUN, said Alpha Radio will focus on better control, interface and support components for its amplifiers while leaving primary tube-related components "unchanged and true to their heritage." For more information, visit the Alpha Radio Products Web site <http://www.alpharadioproducts.com/> or call 303-473-9232. * George S. Van Dyke Jr, W3HK, SK: George Van Dyke, W3HK, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, died earlier this month. He was 89. A Life Member of ARRL, Van Dyke served as ARRL Eastern Pennsylvania Section Communications Manager from 1967 until 1974 and again from 1975 until 1980. He still held an appointment as an ARRL Official Relay Station and had been an ARRL member for 68 years. A retired US Army lieutenant colonel, Van Dyke was a member of the Quarter Century Wireless Association, US Army MARS, the Holmesburg Amateur Radio Club and the National Association of Retired Federal Employees. ARRL Vice President Kay Craigie, N3KN, recalls Van Dyke had a good sense of humor and was "always the gentleman in the way he represented the ARRL and ham radio." Survivors include his wife, Alberta, and three daughters. Memorial contributions are invited to the American Diabetes Association, PO Box 1131, Fairfax, VA 22038-1131.--Bob Josuweit, WA3PZO * Francis Theodore Blatt, KH6KH, SK: Francis Blatt, KH6KH, of Honolulu, Hawaii, died January 13. He was 94. A former ARRL Hawaii Section Communications Manager and former state director for the Army Military Affiliate Radio Service (MARS) program, Blatt was a prominent figure in the history of radiocommunication in Hawaii. First licensed as K6ETF while in his teens, he remained an ARRL member for 76 years. As the chief radio operator for McNeil & Libby, Blatt he installed the first inter-island wireless communication system. He later went to work at the U.S Navy Yard in Pearl Harbor from 1934 until 1945, when he became the Federal Aviation Agency transmitter station chief for Hawaii from 1946 until his retirement in 1970. He was a member and director of the Honolulu Amateur Radio Club. The family invites donations to the Honolulu Assembly of God Francis and Antonia Blatt Memorial Fund, 1007 Koko Head Ave, Honolulu, HI 96816.--Bob Schneider, AH6J; Lee Wical, KH6BZF * William Troetschel, W7LVO, SK: William O. "Bill" Troetschel, W7LVO (ex-K6UQH), of Saratoga, California, died January 18. he was 82. An ARRL Life Member, Troetschel was inducted last September into the Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Hall of Fame and received the Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Award. Troetschel also contributed articles on VHF and UHF topics to QST, a chapter to the ARRL UHF/Microwave Experimenters Manual during the 1960s and 1970s, and more recently, papers to various VHF/UHF conferences. A graduate of the Air Force Institute of Technology, Troetschel was a member of the Air Force satellite team in the 1950s and oversaw the development of communication, command and control, and electronic reconnaissance satellite subsystems. After leaving the Air Force, Troetschel went to work for Lockheed Corporation, focusing on issues involving satellite tracking, communication, and command and control.--some information contributed by Kevin Hague, N5XSA/6 =========================================================== The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American Radio Relay League--The National Association For Amateur Radio--225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259; <http://www.arrl.org/>. Jim Haynie, W5JBP, President. The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential news of interest to active amateurs. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise, and readable. Visit ARRLWeb <http://www.arrl.org/> for the latest news, updated as it happens. The ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/> offers access to news, informative features and columns. ARRL Audio News <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> is a weekly "ham radio newscast" compiled from The ARRL Letter. Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. 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