*************** The ARRL Letter Vol. 28, No. 10 March 13, 2009 *************** IN THIS EDITION: * + Agenda for WRC-11 Poses Opportunities and Challenges for Hams * + ARRL Seeks Nominations for Annual Awards * + Application Deadline Approaching for ARRL Teachers Institute on Wireless Technology * + Hams to Activate Midway Atoll as K4M in October 2009 * + GAREC-2009: Emergency Communications Across Borders * + US Coast Guard to Discontinue LORAN Stations * Solar Update * IN BRIEF: This Week on the Radio ARRL Continuing Education Course Registration + Two New ARRL Section Managers, Six Remain in Office + NASA Delays Discovery's Trip to ISS +Available on ARRL Audio News <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> =========================================================== ==>Delivery problems: First see FAQ <http://www.arrl.org/members-only/faq.html#nodelivery>, then e-mail <email@example.com> ==>Editorial questions or comments only: S. Khrystyne Keane, K1SFA <firstname.lastname@example.org> =========================================================== ==> AGENDA FOR WRC-11 POSES OPPORTUNITY AND CHALLENGES FOR HAMS The next World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-11) <http://www.itu.int/ITU-R/index.asp?category=conferences&rlink=wrc-11&la ng=en> is scheduled for fall 2011. These periodic conferences of the Member States of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) consider allocations to the various radio services -- including the Amateur Radio Service -- and evaluate what new technologies and applications should be addressed by future conferences. The agenda for WRC-11, developed by the delegates at the last WRC in Geneva in 2007 (WRC-07), was formally adopted by the ITU Council in 2008. There are 25 agenda items addressing potential new or revised spectrum allocations to existing services. Of most interest to amateurs is agenda item 1.23, "to consider an allocation of about 15 kHz in parts of the band 415-526.5 kHz to the amateur service on a secondary basis, taking into account the need to protect existing services." "This agenda item is the highest item on my long term priority list," said ARRL Technical Relations Manager Brennan Price, N4QX. "We are fortunate that WRC-11 presents an opportunity for a new secondary allocation in the medium waves. While the outcome in 2011 is far from certain, our experience in other bands -- most notably 30 meters -- indicates Amateur Radio's compatibility with certain other services as a secondary user." Price said that some WRCs have posed great challenges for Amateur Radio, with blocks of spectrum potentially at risk. "This was the case at WRC-03 and WRC-07, which posed a very real potential reallocation of portions of the 40 meter band in Region 2 to HF broadcasting," he said. "The agenda for WRC-11 does not pose any threats to Amateur Radio as clear or as overt as those faced in prior years." Price and ARRL Technical Relations Specialist Jon Siverling, WB3ERA, are monitoring developments on a number of other agenda items that could affect Amateur Radio if they take unanticipated turns, including: * Agenda item 1.14, considering requirements for and implementation of the radiolocation service (radar) between 30-300 MHz. * Agenda item 1.15, considering possible allocations between 3-50 MHz for oceanographic radar applications. * Agenda item 1.19, considering regulatory measures to enable software-defined and cognitive radio systems. * Agenda item 1.22, examining the effect of emissions from short-range devices. "Oceanographic radar is perhaps our biggest defensive issue," Price said. "Fortunately, its proponents, at least domestically and at least at this time, are acknowledging that sharing with Amateur Radio would be problematic." WRC-11 is tentatively scheduled for October 24-November 18, 2011, in Geneva. ==> ARRL SEEKS NOMINATIONS FOR ANNUAL AWARDS Each year, the ARRL Board of Directors has the opportunity to select recipients for a number of awards that honor Amateur Radio operators. These awards, designed to recognize educational and technological pursuits in Amateur Radio, represent many categories, including education and technical excellence. If you know of someone who deserves to be recognized by the ARRL for the service and dedication they have shown on behalf of Amateur Radio, now is the time to submit their name for consideration. Nominations and supporting information should be submitted to ARRL Headquarters by March 31, 2009. Nomination forms and further information on these awards are found on the ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/edunom.html>. The ARRL Herb S. Brier Instructor of the Year Award <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/award/herb-tor.html> goes to a volunteer Amateur Radio instructor. The ARRL Professional Educator of the Year Award <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/award/pey-tor.html> is given to a professional teacher who has incorporated Amateur Radio into his or her class curriculum. The ARRL Microwave Development Award <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/instructor/instructor/awards.html> is presented to a licensed radio amateur (or to individuals who are licensed radio amateurs) who contribute to the development of the Amateur Radio microwave bands. The ARRL Technical Service Award <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/instructor/instructor/awards.html> recognizes a licensed radio amateur (or individuals who are licensed radio amateurs) who provides Amateur Radio technical assistance or training to others. The ARRL Technical Innovation Award <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/ead/instructor/instructor/awards.html> is granted to the licensed radio amateur (or to individuals who are licensed radio amateurs) who develops and applies new technical ideas or techniques in Amateur Radio. The ARRL also offers an award to recognize someone who has served admirably as an ARRL Section Manager. The Knight Distinguished Service Award recognizes exceptionally notable contributions by a Section Manager to the health and vitality of the League. The first such award was presented to Joe T. Knight, W5PDY (now SK) in 2003 -- for whom the award was named -- in recognition of his exemplary service not only as the ARRL New Mexico Section Manager for more than a quarter century, but also for his willingness to share his knowledge and skills. The Knight Distinguished Service Award may be awarded to an ARRL Section Manager who has distinguished himself or herself in accordance with the following ideals: Exceptionably notable contributions over and extended period of time within his or her Section and beyond; demonstrated efforts that have contributed to the health and vitality of the ARRL and its Field Organization, and displayed actions that are in the spirit of the unselfish contributions of Joe T. Knight, W5PDY. Nominations may be made by any ARRL member and shall be accompanied by a narrative of the accomplishments of the nominee identifying the long term contributions of the nominee to ARRL and its Field Organization. If you have questions on any of these awards, please contact Steve Ewald, WV1X, via e-mail <email@example.com> or by phone at 860-594-0265. ==> APPLICATION DEADLINE APPROACHING FOR ARRL TEACHERS INSTITUTE ON WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY Donors to the ARRL Education & Technology Program (ETP) fund <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/tbp/> have made it possible to offer seven sessions of the Teachers Institute on Wireless Technology this summer <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/tbp/ti.html>. According to Education Services Manager Debra Johnson, K1DMJ, she is receiving applications for the Teachers Institute daily, but seats are still available in most sessions: "If you are a teacher -- or you know one who may be interested in exploring the world of wireless technology in their classroom -- now is the time to apply!" This year, Teachers Institute sessions will be offered in Roswell, New Mexico (May 26-29); Rocklin, California (June 15-18); Tucson, Arizona (June 15-18); Viera, Florida (June 23-26); Berrien Springs, Michigan (June 29-July 2); Dayton, Ohio (July 6-9), and Newington, Connecticut (July 27-30). Educators interested in the New Mexico, California and Arizona sessions need to apply no later than April 15, while those interested in the sessions in Florida, Michigan, Ohio and Connecticut have until May 15 to apply. Johnson said that wireless technologies "underpin so many areas of daily life. It is increasingly important for today's education to include at least some basic understanding of the technology involved," she said. "One of ARRL's goals for the Education & Technology Program, and the professional development opportunity that we have developed with the Teachers Institute, is to build wireless technology literacy among America's citizens. It's equally essential to provide an opportunity at an early age for students who will become tomorrow's scientists and engineers to engage their imagination with the fascinating world of radio science." Teachers who are interested in exploring the basic principles of electronics, satellite communications (including communications with weather satellites), radio signals and radio science, radio astronomy, scientific data collection, microcontroller technology and robotics -- and who want to gain a transmissible understanding of the wireless technologies that are so vital to so many areas of everyday life -- will want to investigate this opportunity. The instruction and resources presented in the seminar provide the tools to engage with subject matter in core classroom curricula in science, math, geography and language arts. The resources offered at the Teachers Institute can be adapted to engage students in the primary levels through university. Applicants do not need to be licensed radio amateurs. Teachers need to complete an application <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/tbp/TeachersInstituteApplication2009.doc> for this 4 day, expenses-paid seminar. Check the ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/FandES/tbp/ti.html> for more information. For the first time this year, Johnson said that the ARRL is offering an Advanced Teachers Institute, open to six graduates of the TI program that will focus on satellite communications. "This opportunity has been enthusiastically received and is at full enrollment," she said. "As demonstrated by the application response, we are pleased that the teachers who have participated in the past see the value of the resources that the ARRL offers through this program and are eager to take their exploration of wireless technology to the next level." If you would like to contribute to this very important educational outreach of the ARRL to students in classrooms across the US, you can find more information here <https://www.arrl.org/forms/development/donations/education/education.ht ml>. ==> HAMS TO ACTIVATE MIDWAY ATOLL AS K4M IN OCTOBER 2009 Earlier this year, US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) announced that they would open Midway Atoll <http://www.fws.gov/midway/> to Amateur Radio operations for two weeks only, from October 5-19, 2009 <http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2009/01/27/10596/>. Tom Harrell, N4XP, of Monroe, Georgia, and Dave Johnson, WB4JTT, of Aitkin, Minnesota, have put together a team of 19 operators from all over the world to activate Midway Atoll for a 10 day period as K4M <http://www.midway2009.com/>. This the first time that USFWS has allowed amateurs to operate from the wildlife refuge since 2002. "Midway ranks as Number 24 worldwide and Number 13 in Europe on DX Magazine's Most Wanted List <http://www.dxpub.com/>," Harrell and Johnson said. "Activity will be on 6-160 meters with 5 to 6 stations. At least one station will be active on 20 meters around the clock for those who need it for a new country. Major efforts will be made to meet the demand to the most needed geographical areas, the low bands and RTTY." The team has posted a list of planned frequencies on their Web site <http://www.midway2009.com/kh4freqs.html>. The co-leaders said that travel to the atoll is only allowed by chartered aircraft: "Because of the size of the aircraft, the team is presented with unique challenges. As such, the aircraft will only be able to carry the team, requiring the equipment to be shipped by boat some months ahead." In January, the USFWS started a program to encourage visitors to experience Midway's wildlife, history and culture, as well as non-wildlife-dependent activities -- including Amateur Radio. To ensure the safety of the wildlife on the Refuge, Midway Atoll Refuge Manager Matt D. Brown said that Amateur Radio operations will be permitted for two weeks only, and only within a designated area on the north side of Sand Island. Brown also said that while portable generators will not be permitted, there is 120 V power available at the operation site; any modifications to the island power grid/infrastructure must be approved in advance and be paid for entirely by the radio operators. Brown said that the K4M team will also be required to attend a refuge orientation shortly after their arrival designed to enhance visitor safety, wildlife protection and overall enjoyment of the wildlife refuge. "Although determined to be a wildlife-compatible activity," Brown said, "this [Amateur Radio] opportunity is being conducted on a trial basis." Brown has the authority to discontinue the activity at any time, based on wildlife protection and conservation goals. Midway is located in the North Pacific Ocean (near the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago) -- approximately 1250 miles northwest of Honolulu -- about one-third of the way between Honolulu and Tokyo. At less than 150 miles east of the International Dateline, Midway Atoll is truly "midway" around the world from the Greenwich meridian. The atoll is an unincorporated territory of the United States and is the only atoll/island in the Hawaiian archipelago not part of the State of Hawaii. Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is owned and administered by the USFWS on behalf of the American people and has international significance for both its historic and natural resources. In 1988, Midway became a National Wildlife Refuge, at the time subject to the primary jurisdiction of the Navy. In 1993, the Navy decided to close the Naval Air Facility after more than 50 years of continuous operation. On May 20, 1996, custody and accountability for Midway Atoll transferred from the Department of the Navy to the Department of the Interior. President Clinton signed Executive Order 13022 on October 31, 1996, effectively superseding earlier orders assigning responsibility for Midway to the Navy. A new code of regulations governing activities at Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge was published in the Federal Register on March 10, 1998. When Midway became a national wildlife refuge, it joined a network of more than 500 separate units of the National Wildlife Refuge System, encompassing nearly 93 million acres, throughout all 50 states and several territories and possessions. Refuges represent the only Federal lands set aside and managed principally for the conservation of fish and wildlife. ==> GAREC-2009: EMERGENCY COMMUNICATIONS ACROSS BORDERS The Fifth Global Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Conference (GAREC) -- hosted by the Japan Amateur Radio League (JARL) -- will be held in conjunction with the JARL Ham Fair <http://www.jarl.or.jp/English/4_Library/A-4-6_ham-fair/ham-fair.htm> at Tokyo Big Sight on August 24-25, 2009. Registration for GAREC-2009 will begin in early May. According to GAREC 2009 Organizing Committee Member Seppo Sisatto, OH1VR, this year's theme is "Emergency Communications across Borders." The program will include presentations about operations during disasters that have occurred since GAREC-2008 in Friedrichshafen, Germany, as well as discussions about new developments in technology and their application in emergency communications. The detailed program will be published in late April. All Amateur Radio operators interested in Emergency Communications are invited to participate in GAREC. The fifth GAREC continues the work of its four forerunners: After the first and the second GAREC in Tampere, Finland, the third GAREC in Huntsville, Alabama, USA, and the fourth GAREC in 2008, this year's event will be the first GAREC conference in IARU Region 3. The proceedings and the statements of the 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008 conferences can be found at the GAREC Web site <http://www.rientola.fi/oh3ag/garec/index.html>. Sisatto pointed out that the theme of GAREC-2009 mirrors the theme chosen by the IARU for World Amateur Radio Day <http://www.iaru.org/worldAmRadioDay.html> on April 18, "Amateur Radio: Your Resource in Disaster and Emergency Communication." ==> US COAST GUARD TO DISCONTINUE LORAN STATIONS Last month, the US Coast Guard <http://www.uscg.mil/> announced that due to economic conditions, they would be closing down the 24 LORAN-C (Long Range Aid to Navigation) <http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/loran/default.htm> stations operated under the auspices of the USCG. LORAN stations provide navigation, location and timing services for both civil and military air, land and marine users. According to the USCG, LORAN-C is approved as an en route supplemental air navigation system for both Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) and Visual Flight Rule (VFR) operations. The LORAN-C system serves the 48 continental states, their coastal areas and parts of Alaska. LORAN-A stations were developed beginning in World War II, and signals were transmitted on frequencies in and around our present-day 160 meter band. LORAN-A was responsible for reduced amateur radio operations, including frequency and power limitations, on 160 meters in the United States. In 1979, the Coast Guard phased out the LORAN-A stations; they were replaced by LORAN-C stations. The newer stations operated on 100 kHz, enabling the restrictions on the 160 meter amateur band due to LORAN functions, to be dropped. According to the Coast Guard, the nation's oldest continuous sea-going service will continue to operate the current LORAN-C system through the end of fiscal year 2009; it is in the process of preparing detailed plans for implementing the fiscal year 2010 budget. According to USCG Vice Commandant and Chief Operating Officer Vice Admiral V. S. Crea, further details of the LORAN-C termination plan will be available upon the submission of the President's full budget. -- Some information provided by Cliff Appel, W7CGA ==>SOLAR UPDATE Tad "Where Suns peep in every sheltered place" Cook, K7RA, this week reports: Last week's report again mentioned briefly appearing sunspots and it happened again this week. For just two days, another Solar Cycle 23 spot appeared, number 1014. The latitude of the spot was consistent with an old and fading solar cycle. As this period of quiet Sun drags on, statistic based projections of a return to solar activity continue to be pushed out. Sunspot numbers for March 5-11 were 0, 12, 12, 0, 0, 0 and 0 with a mean of 3.4. The 10.7 cm flux was 69.2, 69.1, 69.1, 68.9, 69.1, 68.8, and 68.9 with a mean of 69. The estimated planetary A indices were 3, 2, 1, 8, 2, 3 and 3 with a mean of 3.1. The estimated mid-latitude A indices were 3, 0, 0, 7, 1, 3 and 2 with a mean of 2.3. For more information concerning radio propagation, visit the ARRL Technical Information Service Propagation page <http://www.arrl.org/tis/info/propagation.html>. To read this week's Solar Report in its entirety, check out the W1AW Propagation Bulletin page <http://www.arrl.org/w1aw/prop/>. This week's "Tad Cookism" brought to you by John Clare's "Young Lambs" <http://johnclare.blogspot.com/2005/03/young-lambs.html>. __________________________________ ==>IN BRIEF: * This Week on the Radio: This week, look for the AGCW QRP Contest, the SOC Marathon Sprint and the ARCI HF Grid Square Sprint on March 14. The EA PSK31 Contest and the Idaho QSO Party are on March 14-15. The North American Sprint (RTTY) and the UBA Spring Contest (6 meters) are March 15. The Wisconsin QSO Party is March 15-16. On March 16, be sure to check out the Run for the Bacon QRP Contest and the Bucharest Contest. The NAQCC Straight Key/Bug Sprint and the RSGB 80 Meter Club Championship (SSB) are March 19. Next week is the Feld Hell Sprint, the AGCW VHF/UHF Contest and the 10-10 International Mobile Contest on March 21. On March 21-22, be sure to tune in for the SARL VHF/UHF Contest, the Russian DX Contest, the Oklahoma QSO Party and the North Dakota QSO Party. The BARTG HF RTTY Contest and the Virginia QSO Party are March 21-23. The UBA Spring Contest (2 meters), the 9K 15 Meter Contest and the QRP Homebrewer Sprint are March 23. The SKCC Sprint is March 25. All dates, unless otherwise stated, are UTC. See the ARRL Contest Branch page <http://www.arrl.org/contests/>, the ARRL Contest Update <http://www.arrl.org/contests/update/> and the WA7BNM Contest Calendar <http://www.hornucopia.com/contestcal/index.html> for more info. Looking for a Special Event station? Be sure to check out the ARRL Special Event Station Web page <http://www.arrl.org/contests/spev.html>. * ARRL Continuing Education Course Registration: Registration remains open through Sunday, March 22, 2009, for these online course sessions beginning on Friday, April 3, 2009: Amateur Radio Emergency Communications Level 1, Radio Frequency Interference, Antenna Design and Construction, Ham Radio (Technician) License Course, Analog Electronics, and Digital Electronics. Each online course has been developed in segments -- learning units with objectives, informative text, student activities and quizzes. Courses are interactive, and some include direct communications with a Mentor/Instructor. Students register for a particular session that may be 8, 12 or 16 weeks (depending on the course) and they may access the course at any time of day during the course period, completing lessons and activities at times convenient for their personal schedule. Mentors assist students by answering questions, reviewing assignments and activities, as well as providing helpful feedback. Interaction with mentors is conducted through e-mail; there is no appointed time the student must be present -- allowing complete flexibility for the student to work when and where it is convenient. To learn more, visit the CCE Course Listing page <http://www.arrl.org/cep/student> or contact the Continuing Education Program Coordinator <firstname.lastname@example.org>. * Two New ARRL Section Managers, Six Remain in Office: Daniel L. Pruitt, AE6SX, of Fresno -- the only nominee for San Joaquin Valley Section Manager -- will take over from Charles McConnell, W6DPD. Tom Dick, KF2GC, of Saranac Lake, will be the Section Manager in Northern New York. Tom -- who served as Section Manager from 2000-2006 -- is taking the reins from Tom Valosin, WB2KLD; Dick's term will be 18 months. The following incumbent Section Managers were unopposed after being nominated. They will begin new two-year terms of office in July: Jim Cross, WI3N, Maryland-DC; Al Shuman, K1AKS, New Hampshire; Rich Krohn, N2SMV, Northern New Jersey; Joe Giraudo, N7JEH, Nevada; Bob Beaudet, W1YRC, Rhode Island, and John Dyer, AE5B, West Texas. All terms begin July 1. * NASA Delays Discovery's Trip to ISS: Due to a leak in the venting system outside the giant external fuel tank, NASA has decided to postpone the launch of a space shuttle headed to the International Space Station (ISS), originally scheduled for 9:20 EDT on March 12. The launch has been rescheduled for Sunday, March 15 at 7:43 PM EDT. Discovery will carry a crew of seven astronauts, including Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata, KC5ZTA; Wakata is with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). He will stay on the ISS, replacing Flight Engineer Sandra Magnus, KE5FYE, who will return home on Discovery. Wakata is scheduled to return to Earth when Endeavour launches to the ISS in June 2009; Flight Engineer Timothy Kopra, KE5UDN, will replace Wakata. Discovery's 14 day mission, which has four spacewalks scheduled, will deliver the fourth and final set of solar array wings to the ISS <http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/312777main_fs-2009-01-004-jsc-Web.pdf>. With the completed array, the station is expected to be able to provide enough electricity when the crew size is doubled to six in May. The shuttle also will carry a replacement for a failed unit in a system that converts urine to drinkable water. =========================================================== The ARRL Letter is published Fridays, 50 times each year, by the American Radio Relay League: ARRL--the national association for Amateur Radio, 225 Main St, Newington, CT 06111; tel 860-594-0200; fax 860-594-0259; <http://www.arrl.org/>. Joel Harrison, W5ZN, President. The ARRL Letter offers a weekly e-mail digest of essential and general news of interest to active radio amateurs. Visit the ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/> for the latest Amateur Radio news and news updates. The ARRL Web site <http://www.arrl.org/> also offers informative features and columns. ARRL Audio News <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> is a weekly "ham radio newscast" compiled and edited from The ARRL Letter. It's also available as a podcast from our Web site. Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to The ARRL Letter/American Radio Relay League. ==>Delivery problems (ARRL member direct delivery only!): email@example.com ==>Editorial questions or comments: S. Khrystyne Keane, K1SFA, firstname.lastname@example.org ==>ARRL News on the Web: <http://www.arrl.org/> ==>ARRL Audio News: <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/audio/> or call 860-594-0384 ==>How to Get The ARRL Letter The ARRL Letter is available to ARRL members free of charge directly from ARRL HQ. To subscribe, unsubscribe or change your address for e-mail delivery: ARRL members first must register on the Members Only Web Site <http://www.arrl.org/members/>. You'll have an opportunity during registration to sign up for e-mail delivery of The ARRL Letter, W1AW bulletins, and other material. To change these selections--including delivery of The ARRL Letter--registered members should click on the "Member Data Page" link (in the Members Only box). Click on "Modify membership data," check or uncheck the appropriate boxes and/or change your e-mail address if necessary. (Check "Temporarily disable all automatically sent email" to temporarily stop all e-mail deliveries.) Then, click on "Submit modification" to make selections effective. (NOTE: HQ staff members cannot change your e-mail delivery address. You must do this yourself via the Members Only Web Site.) The ARRL Letter also is available to all, free of charge, from these sources: * ARRLWeb <http://www.arrl.org/arrlletter/>. (NOTE: The ARRL Letter will be posted each Friday when it is distributed via e-mail.) * The QTH.net listserver, thanks to volunteers from the Boston Amateur Radio Club: Visit Mailing Lists@QTH.Net <http://mailman.qth.net/mailman/listinfo/letter-list>. (NOTE: The ARRL cannot assist subscribers who receive The ARRL Letter via this listserver.) Copyright 2009 American Radio Relay League, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The ARRL Letter
The ARRL Letter offers a weekly summary of essential news of interest to active amateurs that is available in advance of publication in QST, our official journal. The ARRL Letter strives to be timely, accurate, concise and readable.
Material from The ARRL Letter may be republished or reproduced in whole or in part in any form without additional permission. Credit must be given to The ARRL Letter and The American Radio Relay League.
Back issues published since 2000 are available on this page. If you wish to subscribe via e-mail, simply log on to the ARRL Web site, click on Edit Your Profile at the top, then click on Edit Email Subscriptions. Check the box next to The ARRL email newsletter, the ARRL Letter and you will receive each weekly issue in HTML format. You can unsubscribe at any time.
Delivery problems (ARRL member direct delivery only!): email@example.com
Editorial questions or comments: S. Khrystyne Keane, K1SFA, K1SFA@arrl.org.